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Lecture 5

PSY345 Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY345 Lecture 5 Communication Disorders - Communication is one of the most complicated and vital processes we undertake, yet we seldom think about it unless there is a problem o Children pick up a language when they are close to people who speak it again and again o Very basic need to communicate Communication - Interchange of ideas, opinions or facts between people o Texting, non-verbal, verbal etc. - Communication is an extremely important tool Speech and Language - Parts of communication - But the words are not the same - Some components of communication involve language but not speech like body language, text - Speech is one means of expressing language but not the only one – nonverbal behaviour, drawing, writing, texting - Language represents the method that is contained in speech - Speech is the modality that we use in order to communicate - In humans, the development of communication, language and speech overlap to some degree The structure of language - Phonology represents the system of speech sounds – includes rules regarding on how sounds can be used and combined o Ex. Someone may not be able to pronounce or hear certain phoning – resulting in a comprehension problem -> become a speech disorder when other people have a hard time understanding you - Syntax involves the rules governing sentence structure o Ex. word order problem – do not understand how it impacts meaning ex. Yesterday was home i o Do not understand other peoples speech or written language - Morphology is concerned with the form and internal structure of words o Ex. Cold, colder, coldest – missing on tenses, severity, extreme expressions - Semantics represents the understanding of language o Cannot come up with words to express what they mean o Cannot understand the meaning of language o Ex. Seniors after a stroke - Pragmatics are concerned with the use of language in social contexts o Do not have control over their speech o Behave inappropriately in different environmental situat
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