Deafness has developed as a culture. these kids can do everything but hear and there is a strong
evidence they have low score in english.
The case of ASL :read that case study
Spoken English and hand signs that enable a deaf person to distinguish between similar lip movement
with different meanings. Deaf kids do not like it. people dont become proficient in either language and
can only talk in sign language.
Total communication: kids need to be able to communicate if they dont, they get frustrated, depressed.
this is a complete psychological approach. Doesn't really work because we can't sign and speak at the
same time. We all default what is easier for us. like in French emergence school teachers are better in
French communication so they dont allow english. Oralist, similarly, dont like use of sign language in
general school system. In generally it is used in canada with English and sign language.
solution 3: Bilingual- Bicultural: (Recent and most important model)
starts of with the sign language and builds on that knowledge to teach English as a second language.
Bilingualism is a great thing if it is done right. Beyond bilingualism, one of your languages will be known
at the level of mother. That knowledge of mother tongue is extremely imp to understand our world.
What's practice in provincial schools in ontario, if the child cant hear, lets not force on them. Lets teach
them american sign language because they are not ever going to learn speech. Let's teach ASL as mother
language and lets teach them english as the second language because it is going to benefit them. How
are they going to explain their needs to the world if they dont know how to read and write english. They
communicate using the american sign language but when they text they will do so in English. Age of
introduction of the second language varies according to the program. Some programs teach ASL to kids
who grew up orally, some teach oral skills to those who grew up with deaf parents. The key is on choice,
lets give their family choice, lets give the children choice if they want a cochlear implant. Parents have to
make a big decision if they want the child to learn their language. It is hard for the kids to have a second
language if the first language isnt well developed. If they havent learnt first language due to they lack
the ability they will have a hard time developing second language.
Deaf children of deaf parents do better than deaf children of hearing parents. Unclear if its due to the
early exposure to appropriate language or due to a different congenital problem. Some parents try to
teach their kids English first but they are not able to learn it. The other reason may be that deafness may
be caused by something else. If you are a deaf child born to deaf parents, the problem lies only in your
ears. But if you are a deaf child of hearing parents you might have a problem at a neurological level that
explains why you are not doing as well. Deaf leaders claim that they dont say that hearing parents arent
qualififed to make decisions about their deaf children. When parents are told about their kid is deaf they
go see a pediatrician who refers them further. The deaf leaders do not have the problem with parents to
decide but they want access.
Parents only see doctors audiologists who see deafness as a pathology. Fears of parents involve giving
up their child at the early age. System is highly political- resistance in residential schools to spoken
english. In the nazi germany first thing they did was that they got rid of people with disabilities by killing
them, parents gave their children for killing if they were deaf. Conclusion the key factor is look at the child's audiogram and see what the audiogram gets better after
corrections. Ask yourself if the family members are deaf as well.
Kids who are hard of hearing rather than profoudnly deaf may feel stripped off of right to belong to
Parents of deaf kids have it hard.
There is some common ground approaches
- Captioning on TV
- TDD with free relay service (in the 70s and 80s small machines were built for them to communicate
long distance and stuff).
In the cochlear implant we are "fixing the broken body" which is why deaf people dont like it but if
ammendments are made to fit theirs needs in, they like that.
- different from hearing loss. Visual loss doesnt cut people from people cuz you can speak to one
another. People wth severe visual impairment they use braille. If they had choice, they would like to be
fixed and get the vision they dont have.
Medical model approach: eye doesnt work, lets fix it.
Briefly about the visual system:
-Eyes convert physical properties into neural signals. Lens focuses the image on the back of the eyes.
Sometimes when the image isnt clear enough, the lens size is changed. eye works as a camera or
camcorder, you move around and see the image around. In the end of the day its a very complicated
device that we take for granted.
In general its a low prevelance disability. In canada we are talking about 2000 children. We have 60-70
teachers. We have only one residential school (McDonald School).
types of professionals involved are ophthalmologist and optometrists. Optomertrists, help correct
relatively smaller problems. But with the major correction you get to see ophthalmologist.
Etiology of blindness in infancy:
- infectious Diseases. (
- Metabolic and vascular diseases (diseases that relate to high blood pressure that can rupture the tiny
-Prematurity, birth trauma and complications may cause the underdevelopment.
- Maternal drug abuse.
Many of these causes are neurological. -Disruption of eye muscles coordination (movement disorder like cerebral palsy where the kids are
unable to coordinate muscles).
- visual acuity is the distance from which an object can be recognized. Determined by using the snellen
test. It is tested using the board with letters at the eye doctor's. They used to have snellen test in school.
They cant see properly so they cant read well so when they cant read or write well you gotta check if
they can properly see.
- Visual Field: Proportion of central and peripheral vision. We have better visual acuity in central vision.
We have poorer visual acuity when talking about peripheral vision. For the most part ideally we will
have both. We can see 180 degrees from the central vision. visual acuity and the angle is important in
-Accomodation: the ability of the eye to bring and image into focus. lens changes shape to accomodate
different focal points.
- 20/20 vision is what the average adult can see at a distance of 20 feet.
-20/30: poor vision. a person sees at 20 feet when the average adult sees at 30 feet.
20/200: a person sees at 20 feet what the average adult sees at 200 feet. imp for driving as there are
signs that can be seen by 200 feet by normal but it might be too late for a person with 20 feet vision to
do something about the sign.
- Legal Definition: We need legal definition to determine if some one is eligible for driving. In a legal
court where they can serve as an eye witness...their credibility decreases if they have a huge visual
- What is the definition: Acuity measures of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correction or acuity
better than 20/200 if there is a significant visual field defect -- 20 degrees of less (ie tunnel vision:
holding the paper rolls to the eye and all you see is through that tube...that is what happens in tunnel
- Partial sight: visual acuity of greater than 20/200 but not better than 20/70 in the better eye after
correction. They're not legally blind but they can not see properly.
- Educational Definition: That last definition is medical definition. they are much much functional in
terms of trying to determine as to what the school can do for you to accomodate. What does the school
have to do for you or what you have to do for the school to catch up with the academics.
- acuity measures are not good predictor if the child is going to do good in academics or not.
- NEAR-NORMAL VISION: having glasses, lenses you have near normal vision. If you have near normal
vision its your responsibility to make adjustments but not the school. - Moderate Impairment: moderate reduction of acuity with no significant loss of visual fields. these
individuals requrie specialized aids and lightings. They might be good at hockey or games, but they will
have trouble reading.
-Poor Function vision: Usually poor central vision or makred field loss (where they dont see 180 degrees)