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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Lecture 5 The essay - Complimentary to the instruction on the subject in lecture and textbook - Get first hand acquaintance - Go for narrow detail and depth - Not general - Specific Introduction - Broad introduction of the topic - Then move in to focusing on a particular aspect - Impact variable a, b, c have on this topic Survey the current knowledge and understanding of the narrow field of the topic What do we know, what don’t we know, what should we know if there are conflicting findings. Don’t ignore those conflicts What could account for the discrepancy Different subject pools, different methodologies Exert critical insight Come across finding that are problematic, address them critically. Present them – what’s the meaning of it Insight/critical analysis - Don’t start with a thesis. - Only if you have something specific - It’s a critical examination of the current knowledge on a very specific point Critical: careful to observe what is going on, conflicts in finding, ambiguities Do not speak in technical terms, use your own words - No need to define everything - Expert readership Perceiving Color Light - Emitted - Reflected - Transmitted Why? - Search for - Detect - Identify How essential is it to perceive color? - Think about black and white movies - Does it affect the way you follow the movie – no - Color is like a luxury Primary virtue – makes the execution of certain tasks easier and more efficient Essential? - Coloring of fruits/meats can indicate its nutrition, composition, freshness etc - Attract mates – mating behavior In humans color perception may play a role in a variety of other contexts as well - Aesthetics o Decorate our homes - Diagonisitcs o Pee color testing - Emotion o Red when embarrassed o Yellow when embarrassed o Calming colors/hospitals / jails – light pastel color to encourage a more calming effect - Taste o Affected by color o Food industry food coloring o Perception appeal of drink or food is more attractive if its colored a certain way o People will rate things as better tasting when it is colored better o Experiment with people who ate normal food that was sickly colored and the people made themselves sick - Symbolism o Traffic lights o Black – death o Cultural differences - Personality o Dress in colors associated with their own preference On the nature of color - Newton: color is a psyhcoloigcal phenomenon - It is a subjective experience - It exists inside the perceiver - HOWEVER, color perception Some basic color names/ wavelengths - The wavelength of the radiation - Radiation that is converted into physical light - Different wavelengths is associated with different colors Newton - White light consists of a combination of a mixture of colors - A thin beam of light intersects with a prism - And it is refracted from when it enters and leaves - Result of refraction - The white light – function of the prism to tease out the various thread that makes up the spectrum - The amount of the refraction depends ofn the wavelength of the lights - Blue light is refracted more steeply than the yellow - This expeiement was regarded stunning – people used to think white light was the purest and simplest form but then Newton showed us that white light is a mixture of all the other colors Goethe (goerte) – wrote dr Faustus - Accomplished botanist and student of nature - His view was that true science should be based on rigours observation of nature - He wa outraged BY newton’s finding because he was trumped in believing that perceptions are reliable - White light was perceived as white but it is not Spectrum - X axis – wavelength, y axis – the intensity - These are monochromatic lights (one color) - A) – wave,ength of 518 - B) – wavelength of 480 blue Light spectra Traditional bulb that is being phased out – - Sunlight exists in a wavelength that humans cannot see Three psychological dimensions Hue: green/blue - Color Brightness - Bright red/dark red Saturation - The purity of a light - The purest light will be monochromatic - Desaturated light is white because it contaisn all the lights We experience these three dimension at the same time The totality of our color experience is demonstrated by the cone picture - Imagine it is continuous spindle - Each color has three dimension - The hue varies across the circumference - The brightness varies along the vertical axis - Brightness increases as you go up - Saturdation is maximal at the circumference and decreases as you move toward the center. Purest colors on the circumference The particular shape of this solid reflects an interaction between saturdation and brightness - Saturation is a function of distance from the center. - If there is no interaction then all the surface ar ehte same so it would be a cylinder but instead it is conical Slice - Color circle o Creation of newton o We have hue – wavelength/ o Saturation – high at circumference/low at center Color can be created - Two methods o Subtraction  If you take some colors from white lights, it will become more monochromatic  Scattering: collision with molecules causes scattering of light • Sunlight that reaches our eye looks yellow becaus
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