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Lecture 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY345H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY280 –Perception Test - Lecture contents are imp - No equations - Understand key equations from lecture 1 and 2 - Key terms - Check your understanding part of textbook Lecture 4 Visual Object Recognition - Recognize an object by its shape and size - Key feature: shape Image clutter complicates or - Clutter: many of the objects are partially visible or occluded - Visual info is incomplete but not hard to determine what the whole object is - We are exposed to enormous variety of objects everyday in social and natural environments - Brain is the most powerful processer - There are so many objects sometimes that makes it taxing for the brain Variety of the same object - Can recognize that it belongs to the same category (Tree) Viewpoints - An object is seen from many different viewpoints - Can still recognize an object even if the viewpoint changes Object recognition is robust - Occulusion - Despite the oddity of the objects, the size doesn’t affect the reconigition of it - Surprising and unsettling aspect of the painting Object recog. Is a 2 part process Visual Science – how to move from light and dots to a complex scene with objects and events - Perceptual Organization o The segregated various parts of visual system to extract various objects o Once it has been identified, o Look at the colorful wooden bars picture – segregate various bars quite effortlessly o How? o These numbers show that there are many portions – how to tease the various scenes The various components of perceptual organization Hypercolumns - an edge is presented within the visual field and out of that, the pattern will tell the brain the orientation and contour in that location Picture of a house amidst some trees - Can identify the various objects that make up the scene - How? o First have to appreciate the convex edge that is a part of the house or the mountains o But to figure it out you have to make the connections o Have to decipher between the peaks and points o Identify which is front figure, ground etc – have to find a way to connect the edges - Uniform connectedness - Perceptual Grouping o Combine and tease out various object - Perceptual Interpolaton - Matching o What kind of object is it o Matched to some representation and recognize when match is successdul Local Edge extraction Luminous gradient for bottom square bordered by an edge - There are also curved edges, concave – 90 deg angle, convex Partitioning the scene into regions of uniform connectedness’ following local edge extraction is not enough - Brightness is a pysholkogical construct, lumionous is a physical measurement Uniform connectedness – the same colors have the same lumionous - Wokrs with simple situation The picture of the bowls are complex because there are SHADOWS, GRADIENTS, - IF YOU USE THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIFORM CONNECTNESS, you would use b - It’s good as a first step but it needs a lot more to arrive at (d) The first step is to connect uniform parts but harder with a complex scene Figure Ground organization - Edge is boundary - Who owns the egde (border ownership) - Carried out by number of rules for border ownership - It can be ambigious The picture - Do they belong to the white or black part - Cannot perceive both at the same time - Border ownership is not a trivial process Surroundness / Size - Can think that the figure at the front is a black board with a whole in it - Or that its black all around the white shape - Then will grant ownership to the smaller object - Attribute the ownership of the edges to the smaller object Symmetry - Two logical possibilities - Can attribute ownership to the black edges - Usually think that b) is the main picture because of sym
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