- 1773: hearing impairment seen as calamity
- Helen Keller: reflected on her own life.
- Isolation was a direct consequence.
- 16 century: first attempt to educate deaf people.
- There were investigations as to whether death people were able to speak and think and
- The ear converts that physical energy into sound.
- Real physical energy: sub-woofer.
- Sound is this wave of air pressure.
- Higher amplitude: higher sounddecibel is the unit of measurement for sound.
- Pitch (audible representation) how many of these waves occur within a unit of time?
o 20 000 Hz Old aged people cannot hear it.
- Timbre: quality of sound where sound could be nasal or forced.
o They produced different shaped waves.
o Sounds are harmonic.
- Cochlea: hair cells are located throughout the cochlea.
o Each area is responsible for the perception of a different frequency.
- Damage to cochlea.
- Audiogram: look for minimal threshold.
- Clear psychophysical methods.
Banana shaped audiogram
- Superimposed a child’s audiogram on this banana shaped audiogram.
- Acoustics of sound and the anatomy of the human hearing process.
- Hearing loss may vary in intensity at different frequencies – Audiogram.
- Difference between deaf and hard of hearing.
o Some other type of shape audiogram.
o Cannot make use of the resources.
- Age of loss is crucial in determining method of intervention.
- Prevalence 1/1000 at birth but half of these are not identified until age 3.
- Some cause of hearing loss
Oralism: enhancing hearing with hearing aids or cochlear implants and teaching oral English
language skills in inclusive settings.
o Hearing aid: amplifies the amplitude of the sound. Makes sound waves stronger.
o A little microphone
Transparency 77 - FM systems
- Digital implant
- On/off signal based on frequencies.
How do we measure if it (hearing aid) is successful?
- Do they have friends?
- Are they good in writing and reading?
- Early amplification can lead to damage.
Signing – separate schools for deaf children where signing is main means of communication.
- Good options for kids that are not good candidates for surgery or oral approach.
- Deaf university in BC.
- Cultural view vs. medical view of deafness.
- Medical view: The ear impairment has to be fixed.
- Cultural view: communication using America sign language is simply a different