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Lecture 6

PSY345 - Lecture 6.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Peter Morrow

Lecture 6 Hearing impairment - 1773: hearing impairment seen as calamity - Helen Keller: reflected on her own life. - Isolation was a direct consequence. - 16 century: first attempt to educate deaf people. - There were investigations as to whether death people were able to speak and think and hear. Sound - The ear converts that physical energy into sound. - Real physical energy: sub-woofer. - Sound is this wave of air pressure. - Higher amplitude: higher sounddecibel is the unit of measurement for sound. - Pitch (audible representation)  how many of these waves occur within a unit of time? o 20 000 Hz  Old aged people cannot hear it. - Timbre: quality of sound where sound could be nasal or forced. o They produced different shaped waves. o Sounds are harmonic. Transparency 73 - Cochlea: hair cells are located throughout the cochlea. o Each area is responsible for the perception of a different frequency. - Damage to cochlea. Hearing thresholds - Audiogram: look for minimal threshold. - Clear psychophysical methods. Banana shaped audiogram - Superimposed a child’s audiogram on this banana shaped audiogram. Hearing impairment - Acoustics of sound and the anatomy of the human hearing process. - Hearing loss may vary in intensity at different frequencies – Audiogram. - Difference between deaf and hard of hearing. o Some other type of shape audiogram. o Cannot make use of the resources. - Age of loss is crucial in determining method of intervention. - Prevalence 1/1000 at birth but half of these are not identified until age 3. Transparency 74 - Some cause of hearing loss Educational approaches Oralism: enhancing hearing with hearing aids or cochlear implants and teaching oral English language skills in inclusive settings. o Hearing aid: amplifies the amplitude of the sound. Makes sound waves stronger. o A little microphone Transparency 77 - FM systems Transparency 76 - Digital implant - On/off signal based on frequencies. How do we measure if it (hearing aid) is successful? - Do they have friends? - Are they good in writing and reading? - Early amplification can lead to damage. Signing – separate schools for deaf children where signing is main means of communication. - Good options for kids that are not good candidates for surgery or oral approach. - Deaf university in BC. - Cultural view vs. medical view of deafness. - Medical view: The ear impairment has to be fixed. - Cultural view: communication using America sign language is simply a different
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