- 40 MC based on readings (1,2,3,4,5)
- Disabilities act (not particularly cases or challenges in US)
- A choice of 10-13 definitions (come from text or lecture)
- 3 out of 4 short answers (Lecture material, video)
The Early Childhood Years
- Age 6 to 21.
- First years of life are crucial to the overall development of children. A lot of research
comes from developmental psychology: development of language, attachment. Evidence
comes from anecdotal situations: when the child is crying. We also know that
neuropsychology that when the child is born, the nervous system is relatively flexible.
The changes in synaptic transmission are more likely. The brain solidifies as the child
gets older. As a result, when kids are really young, the opportunities for leaning are the
greatest, for example, when a child is exposed to language.
- Early stimulation can affect the development of language. We need to expose children to
stimulating environments. An orphaned child who is not exposed is not going to develop.
- Early intervention can reduce the overall impact of disabilities. For example, if a child is
born with intellectual delay, it is very important to intervene with that child early on. The
longer we wait, the less likely the child is going to learn. If they get the required
treatment for the first 2 years of life, they might have a chance in the future. Early
stimulation in teaching these kids to walk, crawl (getting them active physically), may
save problems later on. Who is responsible for these kids? The province. Not the same
type of legislation with kids during the school year.
- Less costly. Early intervention makes economic senses. Some of these costs can be
saved down the road. Even conservative governments have recognized this.
What services are available?
- Network of “infant development programs”: Network of programs for child welfare. When
it comes to legislation, we don’t have the same type as normal children. They get the
funding from community services, apply for grants, and beg for money, sometimes they
get into partnerships with hospitals or private sectors. These are organization or
agencies to help facilitate care for infants with intellectual delays. Kids don’t receive
intervention until they are in the school system, that is, age 6.
- Purpose. These agencies don’t only work with kids with diagnoses, but also with kids
that have diagnoses, or other types of demographic risks.
o To optimize the child’s functioning level. They don’t try to cure the child. Why?
There isn’t necessarily a cure. There is no cure for autism but there are
interventions. We don’t want to equate disability with sickness. A person who
can’t see is not necessarily sick; the person has impairment. Stimulate, expose,
intervene, and push them to get to whatever level they can.
o Help parents with information and support. Parents don’t expect a child with
o Help families solve problems around special issues. You’re new to it.
Target populations: - It determines which kids the agencies will take first/ prioritize in terms of access to
services. This is very different from school system. The province has to provide them
with health services.
- Established Risk: the child has a particular risk: intellectual delay for example. We
know the condition and we know what the child is going to go through based on our
understanding of that condition. For example, Down syndrome can be diagnosed in the
womb. It is clearly confirmed medically. We know what challenges the child will face.
FASD: not a chromosomal disorder. Alcohol disrupted the neurological development. It
has a brain disorder which will result in all sorts of challenges. That can be diagnosed
very clearly. Similarly kids who are born addicted to cocaine.
- Biological risk: Anoxia: lack of oxygen during the birth process, results in brain
disorder. It can happen due to umbilical cord wrapped around the child’s neck, or their
bum comes out first. A birthing process which is too long. C-section was not fast enough.
The child may be born normal but because of these earlier problems, the child is at risk
for developmental delays compared to a child who did not have these early issues. They
will receive secondary priorities.
- Psychological risk: Mom got pregnant when she was a teenager. For example, a child
with ADHD. Cases which we don’t know the cause. We know it is not established or
early negative events. It is controversial on how early the intervention should start.
- Client centered: directly helps the client. For example, if you have a hole in the tooth,
you need client centered approach. If you broke your arm, you need a cast to fix it. You
do not need family centered approach.
- Family centered: If mom does not get support to discipline the kids. We teach th