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PSY310 Week 7 Lecture.txt

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Schools, work, leisure & Media March 3rd, 2014 > Objectives for Today's Lecture ? Schools - Historical changes in education - Functions of schools - School characteristics - Classroom characteristics - Emerging adulthood and education ? Work - Impact of employment ? Leisure - Structured leisure time - Unstructured leisure time ? Media - Impact of media > Historical Changes in Education ? Proportion of adolescents in formal education has increased - 1910: 15% ~ Mainly children of wealthy families - 2000's: +90% ~ U.S.: 2010 97% of males & 97% of females ? Historical Changes in Education - Amount of days per year spent in school has increased ~ 1920: 162 days ~ 2000's: 180 days - Amount of years spent in school has increased ~ 1924: 33% of 5th graders graduated ~ 2000's: 75% of 5th graders will graduate (on time) > Historical Changes in Education ? U.S. - Educational reform in the 1920s due to increase in enrollment ~ Classical liberal arts - Influx of immigrants ~ Americanization - Preparing adolescents for work and citizenship - Birth of the comprehensive high school ~ Allows for education of a diverse population of adolescents > Education in Developed Countries ? Comprehensive high school - Only source of education in the U.S. - More educational reform in the 2000s, "no child behind" policy - In many developing country, there are - Comprehensive high school system is less common in many European country ? College-Preparatory - Focus on general education not education for a specific profession or recreational subjects - 50% of adolescents in Europe ? Vocational school - Skills involved in a particular profession - 50% of adolescents in Europe ? Professional school - Teacher training, the arts, or some other specific purpose - Allows entry to university ? Apprenticeship programs - Adolescents who enroll in part-time schools while also remains their job ? By having three different types of school, they urge adolescents in Europe to make career decisions relatively early, as compared to the adolescents in North America. ? In North America, career decisions can be delayed to the last year of high school, or even to the first few years of undergraduate. > Functions of Schools ? Maintenance-actualization - Give student the opportunity to grow socially, emotionally, and personally ~ Enrich students' personal, psychological and emotional development ? Skills-training/cultural transmission - Provide students with the necessary skills and knowledge to become an economically independent and productive member of society ? Schools differ in terms of their ability to fulfill these two functions > Factors that Influence School's Ability to Meet Their Goals: School Characteristics ? School Atmosphere ? School size ? Age segregation ? School Transitions ? Tracking ? Ethnicity ? Funding ? Classroom Climate* > Factors that Influence School's Ability to Meet Their Goals: School Atmosphere ? Include general climate and nature of interactions between: - Administration and teachers - Commitment of teachers - General school environment ? Effective schools are characterized by: - Strong leadership - Orderly, non-oppressive atmospheres for students and teachers - High frequency of monitoring of student performance - Emphasis on intellectual activities shared by all ~ Teachers also feel valued in effective schools - Teacher input in decision-making - Strong community ties > Factors that Influence School's Ability to Meet Their Goals: School Size ? Student performance and interest improve when schools are less bureaucratic and more intimate - 500-1000 students or 600-900 students ? Large schools - More varied curricular and extracurricular opportunities ~ Lower participation in extracurricular activities ~ Many students may not feel the intimate atmosphere in larger schools - "Schools within schools" ~ Many large schools created the schools within schools to solve create an intimate atmosphere within a large context ~ Must be consistency between the schools that are contained in the large school ? Small schools - Create sense of community ~ Increases achievement ~ Fewer students to compete for the spaces for extracurricular activities, they are more motivated to participate. - Allow opportunities for leadership and responsibility ~ Extracurricular activity participation helps students to gain leadership skills and senses of responsibility - Aids academically marginal students ~ Research suggests a class of 40 students performs the same level as the class of 20 students ~ For students who require more tutoring, they do benefit from smaller classes ~ But in general, smaller classes does not transfer into higher academic achievement, but smaller schools do. ? Overcrowding - Canadian schools - Americans schools ~ Lower achievement ~ Stress on students and teachers Ex. Guidance counselors ~ Inadequate facilities Ex. Gym with poor ventilation ~ Inadequate resources Ex. Low-income areas are more likely to have overcrowded schools > Factors that Influence School's Ability to Meet Their Goals: Age Segregation ? Positive effects of two school system - But ~ Grade configuration less important than school's educational climate and quality of teaching ~ One transition as compared to three transition feel better, in terms of GPA, self-esteem, participation, and lower feelings of anonymity. ~ The majority school system in America is the Three School System with two transition, because there are more focus on school climate and the quality of teaching in how student adjust the transitions, moving from one school to another. > Factors that Influence School's Ability to Meet Their Goals: School Transitions ? As children move into middle school or junior high - School grades, academic motivation, and self-esteem decrease temporarily - Scores on standardized achievement tests do not decline - Student motivation and changes in grading practices may be changing, not student knowledge - It's not the transition results a decrease in knowledge or ability, it's the students' motivation changes. - Grading practices also may change. - Biological transitions should also be taken into account. ? Schools can combat these changes by reducing anonymity, hiring teachers with training in adolescent development, and strengthening ties between the school and community - Making closer bounds between students and teacher - Teachers with training in adolescent development know what adolescent's are going through during the transition ? May be the nature of the transition - Teachers in middle school/ junior high: ~ hold different beliefs about students, compare to elementary school teachers ~ are less likely than other teachers to feel confident about their teaching ability ~ are less likely to trust their students and more likely to emphasize discipline ~ more likely to believe that students' abilities are fixed and not easily modified through instruction - Developmental mismatch between what adolescents need and what they get from teachers > Factors that Influence Schools' Ability to Meet Their Goals: Tracking ? Separating students, by academic ability, into different classes within the same school ? Proponents argue that ability-grouping allows teachers to design class lessons that are more finely tuned to students' abilities ? Critics argue tracking leads to problems - Students who are placed in the remedial track generally receive a poorer quality education, not just a different education - Socialize only with peers from same track - Biased track placement ? Those on more advanced track - Receive more challenging instruction, classroom activities foster critical thinking - Have higher school achievement, more access and variety in curriculum, higher educational attainment ? Tracking based on previous school achievement or culturally-biased achievement tests can result in the continuation of educational inequity > Factors that Influence Schools' Ability to Meet Their Goals: Ethnicity ? How does desegregation affect school achievement? Research findings mixed: - Desegregation has little impact on achievement levels of either minority or White adolescents - Minority youngster's self-esteem is higher when they attend schools in which they are in the majority ? Students fare better psychologically when the cultural environment of their neighborhood is consonant with the cultural environment of their school > Factors that Influence Schools' Ability to Meet Their Goals: Funding ? Recent research has suggested that private schools aren't necessarily more effective than public schools - Characteristics of students and not the school - Family background is more important influence on achievement than school quality ? Exception are Catholic (private) schools: - Climate is different from public schools - Strong community values promote social capital, give students additional resources > Factors that Influence Schools' Ability to Meet Their Goals: Classroom Climate ? How teachers interact with students, use class time, and the expectations they hold for students all influence learning and academic achievement ? Students achieve more when attending schools that are responsive and demanding, where teachers are supportive but in control - Authoritative techniques ? Strong correlation between teacher expectations and st
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