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Conditioning Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga

LEARNING Classical Conditioning—a type of learning style in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus. • Developed by Ivan Pavlov around 1900. • Russian physiologist • Accidentally founded “psychic reflexes” • Worked with dogs • Discovered the dogs would salivate to a neutral stimulus like a bell • Stimulus—response • Automatic or involuntary reflexes Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – A stimulus that automatically elicits a response. (Like food) Unconditioned Response (UCR) – A response to an unconditioned stimulus. (Like salivating) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A previous neutral stimulus that can now elicit a response (Like a bell) Conditioned Response (CR) – A response to a conditioned stimulus (Like salivating to a bell) Conditioned fears are often the result of Classical Conditioning. Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition- the initial stage of learning something; in Classical Conditioning, it occurs by pairing an Unconditioned Stimulus with a Neutral Stimulus (like meat and a bell). Extinction- the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is presented alone. Dental assistant with dentist drill Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to that stimulus. Taking a break and getting the response back. Stimulus Generalization- responds the same way to similar stimuli(bridge phobia) Stimulus Discrimination- responds only to the original stimulus OPERANT CONDITIONING • B.F. Skinner • Form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their circumstances • Responses are influenced by outcomes • Voluntary responses B.F. Skinner called this reinforcement—a response is strengthened because it leads to a reinforcer. • Work—paycheck • Money in machine—soda • Tell jokes—laughter Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Acquisition—once again, the initial stage in learning. Responses that are reinforced are conditioned. Operant conditioning responses go through a process called shaping which brings about the response over time Exti
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