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Lecture 2

PSY252 Lecture 2 January 17.docx

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Robert Gerlai

PSY252 Lecture 2 January 17, 2014 Darwin’s dangerous idea: cont’d - Reproductive advantage of certain features - Development of complex organs (eyes, heart, etc.) there has to be a designer. o Creationist’s argument: how can complex organs evolve? o Complex organs like the eye are designed in a bad way, with many mistakes. o All evolution does is it modifies existing genotypes & phenotypes, carry the mistakes of the past, works from an existing genome o Ex. Unnecessary features we carry in our body: appendix, tail bones, etc. - Survival is not the point, reproduction is. o It doesn’t matter if a gazelle is fast but if it doesn’t mate, that gene that made that gazelle fast and allowed it to survive 200 years will not be passed on. o Fitness, number of genetic copies you make of your own genome – reproduction, copies will spread and survive in the population o Survival to reproduce - Natural selection: forces of nature select which organism will survive o Adapt to changing environments o better suited to the local environment o will not move a particular species to betterment, only allows individuals to adapt to their local environment o no predetermined directional change - Can you see natural selection at work? o Bacteria becoming more resistant to antibiotics o Reproduce rapidly, one a minute a new generation arrives o Viruses: produce new generations in seconds, evolution is amazingly fast, new mutations can be seen under microscope - Evolution of HIV the virus that causes AIDS o Virus keeps adapting o 19 HIV drugs o HIV replicates at an alarming rate  During reproduction DNA replicates • Replication: two strands of DNA separate and two copies are made of the original • During the process some
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