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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Video Note.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Robert Gerlai

Darwin Video Natural Selection - Purposeless, meaningless, but meaningful randomness - Evolution o Random mutation change in genome o Adaptive mutation o Mutation sometimes can be good for particular individual o Mutations accumulate and give rise to the complexity of species - Steven j gould  evolutionary biologist Theory - In science, its not speculation - Coherent diff facts, ideas that explain a larger idea Time - Earth is very old structure - Events took place in long time - How much change can occur within time - How old universe? o 13.5 billion years old - How old is earth? o 4.5 billion years old - How old is life? o 3.2 billion years Evolution - More offspring, more mutation carried into next generation - Change in allele frequency (Gene variant) - Mutation spreads if reproduction offspring increases - These mutations increases How did seashells land on this island? - How did it get there? - These changes happened long time ago - Tiny change that you can’t detect, if you accumulate these tiny changes over billion years, you can change species, generate an entire process - How old the universe is? o 13.5 billion years old - How old earth is? o 4.5 billion years old - How long life existed? o 3.2 billion years Evolution is like a tree growing Tree of life - Some branches branch out, some - Evolution is like a tree growing - Evolutionary time separates the species - Everyone has been evolved from a single tree (all living things related) - Beaks evolved because of the different foods they adapted to Modifications - If mutations in preying mantis more like a leaf - Selective selection - Better survival rate - Caught less - Eat more - Produce more offspring - Can compare how related they can be - H
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