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Lecture 9

PSY353H5 Lecture 9: PSY353- Lecture 9 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Melissa Holmes

PSY353 Lecture 9 Notes: Motivation and Emotion (Social Relationships and Reward) Lecture 9: Motivation and Reward these pictures are all things that humans find rewarding different types of social relationships and how they are rewarding What is reward? you might feel good about something making you more likely to pursue it positively reinforces preceding behaviours to obtain what makes you happy need to attend to the stimulus Characteristics of Reward: does it make you feel good? distinct from wanting it wanting what you will do to get it can happen without you realizing it motivation wanting, adjusting your behaviour to pursue that goalreward Reward and Development: varies across development what you find rewarding or how you express motivated behaviour changes throughout life adolescence in a key time in your life where reward and development changes (neural circuits and connections change plasticity of the brain) Reward Neurocircuitry: Basics substantia nigra projects to the basal ganglia for motor function related to Parkinsons disease Reward Neurocircuitry: Basics (Slide 7): addictive drugs like cocaine have a dopaminergic mechanism of action influences dopaminergic factors put an electrode down into the brain and stimulates the neurons in that brain region data from a human experiment this participant is like a rat in the sense that you can condition them to press a bar press in order to receive stimulation in dopaminergic regions antagonists block dopaminergic activity Reward Neurocircuitry: Model I most simplistic model will pursue that behaviour more to get more of a responsestimulation to dopaminergic regions of the brain ex: increase the dosage of drug your addicted to in order to get more of a response Volkow et al. 2002 (Slide 9): positive correlations between change in circulating dopamine and rating of the high (drug) decreased D2 receptors in the striatum Reward Neurocircuitry: Model II building on liking vs. wanting liking part is controlled by opiates and once the addictive behaviour comes onlineactive dopaminergic regions become active as drug use goes on you see a split between how much you like it (tends to go down but you want it more) How do you distinguish liking from wanting? need to distinguish liking vs. wanting in order to measure data can get different behaviour in liking vs. wanting conditions DA is NOT important for liking: how it is studied in rats destroyed dopaminergic function in neostriatum or accumbens
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