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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 (Ch.5 - Sex Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle).docx

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Ayesha Khan

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NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. Lecture 7 (Ch.5: Sex Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle) SLIDE 1 SLIDE 2 - Unless neurotransmitters, hormones travel long distance so it can get into blood stream - What makes hormones travel is that it’s able to travel SLIDE 3 - The hypothalamus is located under the thalamus - Underneath the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland - Hypothalamus produces hormones and has an impact in the conduction of hormones of pituitary gland - Pituitary hormones takes instructions from hormones in hypothalamus - Hypothalamus hormones doesn’t travel that long - Pituitary gland is the master gland because it’s those hormones that travel the far distances despite the hypothalamus is giving it instructions - Stomach, pancreas, adrenal glands (on top of kidney) for managing reproduction; mediated stress responses (cortisol) producing hormones SLIDE 4 - The majority is going to focus on steroids and peptides - Different categories of hormones - Differentiate by molecular structure - Precursor is cholesterol for testosterone - Peptides are multiple chains or monoamines; protein based - Steroids are like fat like structure; gain access to a lot of cells by passive diffusion (arrive at cell membrane and can diffuse because of fat like structure) - Whereas peptides are protein based structures SLIDE 5 - Stress and reproduction - Comes from testes or ovaries (gonads) and the adrenal cortex (outer covering of adrenal gland) - Adrenal cortex produces different types of hormones than the adrenal gland - Cholesterol is a fairly large structure; 27 carbons that holds up the model - grease is fat soluble so that it mixes in with other oils; so is steroids - Cell membrane has a lot of fat in it (phospholipid bilayers) so that the steroids can dissolve through these membrane - Small, so can pass through mother to fetus - Excretions such as saliva (looking for cortisol to determine stress) - Diffuse across the cell membrane especially the neuronal membrane - Differentiation from male and female is involved during the fetus and in the neurons - Fat soluble and small so that it can easily gain entries and these receptors bind to steroids SLIDE 6 - PEPTIDES - Hypothalamus and pituitary exclusively produce peptides - Peptides are larger - They’re more frail and break within seconds - They’re water soluble; decrease effect much more quickly than steroids - steroids is like a set of instructions for DNA goes inside the cell and binds to DNA and gives instructions to DNA and in which gives another set of instructions; potency: very powerful - Peptides can get into blood supply easily; how does steroid which is fat soluble travel within the body? - Steroids take advantage of proteins in blood and then it goes to whichever target site it needs to; then it dissociates and diffuse through the membrane SLIDE 7 - Steroids produce by testes and ovaries NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Sex steroids are lipid molecules (fat like structures) - 3 categories: androgens, estrogens and progestins SLIDE 8 - don’t have to remember the numbers but the general words - 5 alpha reductase: allows for testosterone to get converted to DHT SLIDE 9 - Cholesterol converts to progestins and further to corticoids or to androgens and androgens to estrogens - If u have powerful hormone, you need very little of it to have a dramatic effect SLIDE 10 - corticoids: mineral corticoids and gluten corticoids (mediate stress related response) - Cortisol is found in humans and corticosterone is found in lower mammals - If cortisol is too high and your body is too stress, it can not upkeep a pregnancy SLIDE 11 - 19-C STEROIDS SLIDE 12 - 18-C STEROIDS - Powerful - 17 beta estradiol is estrogen SLIDE 13 - The ways hormones are release in the body; characteristic pattern - Y axis is testosterone amounts (nanogram/ml) - Cortisol tend to be highest early in the morning (6-7am); Stress gives you energy - High level of testosterone in the morning - Around 4-5 pm there’s a gradual decrease - Over the course of the night, when you sleep, there’s a dip; by the time you wake up, there’s a rebound SLIDE 14 - The follicles carrying immature egg that will develop over the menstrual cycle - Immature oocyte inside the follicles - One layer closest to follicles is the granulosus cells and the thecal cells - Cholesterol goes to thecal cells to produce progestins and androgens and then it goes into granulosa cells where there’s lots of aromatase and where it can get converted to estradiol which is eventually secreted - Inhibin (inhibits systems) and activin (activates system) in the granulosa cells - More activins than inhibins SLIDE 15 - Two parts of the pituitary gland; Anterior portion and the posterior portion - Structurally, they’re different even if they’re the same gland; they release different hormones - posterior: Oxytocin (peptide hormone involve with uterine contractions and orgasm) and basal pressin (anti dirutic hormones) - Anterior: thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH); growth hormone; ACTH goes to adrenal cortex and gives instructions for how much cortisol to be produced; Follicle stimulating hormones and luteinizing hormone produced by both males and females and goes to ovaries and testes to produce more hormones; and prolactin for production of milk SLIDE 16 - Back portion of the pituitary gland - Two clusters of cell bodies; in the supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus - Clusters of cell bodies have their axons in the posterior portion of pituitary - Hormones made in the neurons - Oxytocin made in hypothalamus but release in posterior pituitary - Posterior is made up of neural tissues (neurons originating in the hypothalamus); axons releasing NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Anterior: blood transfer system; there’s lots of capillaries originating from hypothalamus, so through the blood portal system travel to the anterior pituitary and gets instructions of what kind of hormones it should produce - Posterior: hormones being released that originated in the hypothalamus SLIDE 17 - The cortex that becomes important - Not important to distinguish the different layers - ACTH gets into blood and to adrenal cortex to produce steroids hormones? - Connections exist through hormones SLIDE 18 - Hypothalamus releases GnRH and it’s a releasing hormones and it causes the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH; they result
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