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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 (Ch.11 - Fertility, Pregnancy and Childbirth).docx

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Ayesha Khan

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. Lecture 6 (Ch.11: Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth) SLIDE 1 - Pregnancy doesn’t establish at fertilization - Implanting conceptus - Conceptus IMPLANTED on the uterine wall is when pregnancy occurs - Hormones in the blood and urine (HCG) - Uterine starts to secrete HCG to stop the process of the menstrual cycle SLIDE 2 - No, but it could be; not absolute sign - Period: shedding of the uterine lining - Many women have irregular periods, the period could be interrupted by other factors - Stress is a big contributor (heavy or very little, or skip altogether) - Pathology or disease in the body (stressor in the body itself) SLIDE 3 - Embryos start to secrete HCG (instead of embryos, use conceptus as correct term) SLIDE 4 - Home pregnancy test - Peeing on the stick and the urine gets absorbed - antiHCG antibody: substance that has huge substance binding; provided that it has the right substrate to bind to; bind to HCG; we need a good indicator, the enzyme is the indicator to say whether it’s positive or negative and if the test is working - antiHCG - Goat antibody to mouse antibodies - Urine migrates along the stick - HCG bind to antiHCG antibody complex - First test region that says positive or negative; there’s another antiHCG and the binding to it, the enzyme (green circle) will go through chemical reactions, if there’s binding, it means positive, if not, negative - Control region: allows for entire complex to show whether binding occurs or not (if the test is working or not) SLIDE 5 - Young fertile couple without contraception, 93% chance of pregnancy within one week - Fertile window: when ovulation is about to occur or when it already occurred - Mapping basal body temperature: checking first thing in the morning - Examining the mucous that lines the cervix SLIDE 6 - Starts to peak as it gets closer to ovulation - Once ovulation occurs, conception narrows a bit SLIDE 7 - Average 28 days of menstrual cycle - Day 1 means menstruation (bleeding) - As we get closer to ovulation, basal temperature starts to get lower SLIDE 8 - Examining the consistency of mucous - Release during the time of ovulation - Consistency tends to be gel like and transparent - Other times, it’s more white and yellow and thick SLIDE 9 - More accurate - Home test ovulation kit - Detect another hormone (LH) - There’s LH spike during time of ovulation NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Expensive kit SLIDE 10 - Year to year rising in infertility - Most of the treatments are not supported by OHIP - Lots of money being funded through private clinics - Most individuals/couples are diagnosed with subfertility - Reduce sperm count: sex chromosome abnormality (genetic defect); infections; overall health of individual; undescended testes (closer to body) means the quality of the sperm are not as good; radiation and chemotherapy; endocrine disruptors - Lots of money looking at the infertility - Tight clothing and sitting in excessive heat is not good SLIDE 11 - Abnomaly in terms of structure - 25% is sperm problems - Generally, if there’s fewer than 20 million sperms per milliliter of semen, they’re consider subfertile SLIDE 12 - Artificial insemination: depositing sperm in the uterus (taking semen sample and giving it a push) - In vitro fertilization: - Want to maximize fertility, female is given cocktails to maximize follicle; injections of hormones that increase follicles that is developing; using ultrasound to monitor ovaries and see when ovulation will occur; when ovulation happens, the follicles has a particular size and that’s when insemination should take place - Mixing sperm and egg in petri dish (contains the right pH, nutrients, temperature etc; that mimics the fallopian tube) - The egg can survive for a number of days SLIDE 13 - Sperm count is decreasing by the years - Dipping even further now SLIDE 14 - Invasive procedure - Given injections to the female and get a hyper menstruation - Egg mature enough and the surgeon sucks out the follicle and egg - The male produces a sample and put into petri dish and then wait for fertilization to occur - Wait 48 hours to see if the egg starts to develop SLIDE 15 - What if there’s problems with sperm? - The sperm can’t penetrate the outer layer of the egg - The ovum is immobilized - Very sharp, fine tip pipette inserts the sperm SLIDE 16 - Gamete intrafallopian transfer: Take the eggs and the sperm and put them in the fallopian tubes - Not very popular, it depends on the clinics SLIDE 17 - Increased the number of babies being born - What about the outcome? Is there any health impacts? - There are 2-3 times of prematurity, low birth weight and infant mortality SLIDE 18 - if fertilization occurs, but the uterine can’t uphold the egg, then they can use a surrogate - Egg donations SLIDE 19 - optimal time to get pregnant is 16-25. - By the time the couple reaches mid-30s, ¼ couple are in the subfertile and infertile stage NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Chemicals acting like hormones that is affecting the sperm system - Occurrences of down syndrome babies in older mothers; extra copy of chromosome 21; not just women over 35, happens to younger women SLIDE 20 - Rh fa
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