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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 (Ch.7 - Gender).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. Lecture 12 (Ch.7: Gender) SLIDE 1 - Sample questions is going to be posted - Next week, there might be time to check the midterm - There’s no ambiguity because you either know the material or you don’t - 1 mark question is usually things from the textbook - SA are usually topics from lecture - Read every page of the textbook - Gender: looking at differences in cognitive skills and strategies - Gender is not a dichotomy because some people sit in between - Gender research is in its infancy - Most researchers are looking at gender at a dichotomy, either male or female - Sexual strategies; coding genes of it or is it socially learned (environment) - Figuring out behaviours of whether it displays female or male traits SLIDE 2 - Gender is a cluster of behaviour that differs between the sexes - Sexual orientation in the majority of population is highly gendered; if biologically female, their sexual orientation will be towards the opposite sex - Gender identity: who you are associated as a person; sense of who you are as a person and you give this identity to yourself - Gender role expression often times matches who you think you are as a person (gender identity) SLIDE 3 - Sometimes anatomical features may not look like one or the other - Transgender: anatomy of one sex but the gender identity of another sex - Transsexual: change in anatomy; hormone replacement therapy; physiological changes; surgery - For most, genitals usually match the gender identity SLIDE 4 - MEN AND WOMEN DIFFER IN A VARIETY OF COGNITIVE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS SLIDE 5 - Cognition - Your thinking capabilities - Spatial reasoning - Mental rotation task - Men tend to outperform women SLIDE 6 - Studying the picture and be able to label where each object was - Men tend to perform better at mapping location - Men have a slight advantage over women, but more so in the mental rotation tasks SLIDE 7 - Young people show more aggression - Men show more aggressiveness than women - Research is currently looking at dominance - It’s not true about causal relations that males with high testosterone will lead to aggression; it only applies to animals but not humans (it’s more complicated); there are correlations but not causal - Verbal aggression and aggression in general, men score higher than women - Physical aggression shown more in males and indirect aggression shown more in females - Trailer: Mean Girls- good way to show indirect aggression SLIDE 8 - Men will express more promiscuous attitudes towards casual sex (premarital sex and extramarital sex) - Men and women also seek different characteristics - Women seek older partners and seeking what resources he has; from an evolutionary perspective, whether the male can provide for her offsprings - Men seek more younger partners because she is younger and healthy = healthier eggs - Genes code for preferences as well NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - In females, they experience emotional jealousy (being committed to someone else); emotional investment to the males and her offsprings (women knows it’s their child while the male doesn’t know for sure) - In males, they experience physical jealousy (acts with someone else); the male doesn’t want to father other people’s child so they are more physically jealous to make sure the woman doesn’t have sex with other people - Frequency of masturbation: males are more likely to admit they masturbate; societal norms that you have to question in studies of whether the data are accurate or not SLIDE 9 - Occur as early as the first year of life - Be able to tell whether it’s a male voice or female voice - Identifying their own sex (2-3 years after birth) - Boys likely to play with fire trucks while girls like to play with dolls - Even in primates, they tend to exhibit similar toy preferences to their gender where environment are not exactly generated to gear towards the gender SLIDE 10 - Gender constancy: gender doesn’t change overnight and knowing that it will stay the same - In a 2 year old, gender constancy has not been developed yet SLIDE 11 - Boys and girls early in life show different behaviours - Male fetus will exhibit more activities inside the womb compared to females - Boys prefer cars, trucks, construction, etc; engage in more rough and tumble and hurt themselves; - The kind of moral rules: girls have a social convention (the teacher will get mad) and young boys have principles of justice (hands off, that toy is mine) SLIDE 12 - Have to do with evolutionary past -
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