- Used to be called comparative psychology: comparing humans and animals.
- We do not know what animals are thinking; whether they have emotions or morals.
- Self-assessment is one way of knowing
o Animals cannot self-assess
- How can I determine if you’re happy?
o Facial expression & self-report (most common)
o What do we look as facial expression for happiness?
A smile. This is cross-culturally
- However, facial expressions are not always reliable.
- 3 way of measuring happiness
o Physiological arousal, Emotions
o For example: sarcastic tone
People who have Asperger’s syndrome cannot detect sarcasm.
- How do you determine a dog is happy?
o Jumps up and down, wags tail
- Attributing a subjective human trait to a dog: ANTHROPOMORPHISM
- Changing the animal’s behavior to a human concept.
- As a human, your dog looks happy – at least this is what it looks like to us.
- Mind vs. brain dilemma. Clearly, our species have brains.
- Brains have evolved from less complex to more complex in response to the organism’s
- Darwin proposes that survival of the fittest – not strongest – MISINTERPRETATION
- Fittest: ability to pass genes to next generation
o Produce viable offspring and most adaptive.
o Fit = adaptation
- Example: leave one in the desert and find your way home.
- We would probably not be able to do that. But pigeons can.
- All species have brains, evolved from simple to complex.
- Does brain size and complexity reflect cognitive ability (intelligence)? - Carrier pigeon have a pretty small brain size.
- But in the desert, they have adapted that niche and that’s what they’ve evolved to do.
- One can argue that the minds of certain species are move evolved than others.
- Thorndike: operant conditioning
o We can change the way animals think by manipulating their environment.
o Used cats in boxes.
- End of thth19 century: beginning of the thought: Do animals have minds?
- Early 20 century: biological theories suggesting that the mind and brain look to be the