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Lecture 3

PSY362 - Lecture 3.docx

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Peter Morrow

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10/06/2013 ANIMAL ETHICS FORAnimal research: 1) benedits humans - animal research benefits humans and telling us where we come from 2) benefits animals – lets us understand animals better 3) similar but simpler – reflexes in which we have no voluntary control over and involuntary behaviour- most of this research comes from animals 4) prolific- we tend use invasive animals on animals that are not in danger for becoming instinct and we tend to use observation research 5) low cost – not expensive AGAINST animal reseach: 1. Can be invasive/ painful – most research that if painful will not be approved by an ethics board, research will not be approved if painful 2. Animals are different from humans 3. Consent/ interpretation (the benefits don’t outweigh the costs) 4. There are alternatives – learning in animals looks specifically at conditioning (operant and classical) we learned a lot of conditioning from animals c no verbal interactions COMPUTER can be used sniffy is an alternative to using animals 5. Endangered species- essay: • discuss the use of animals in OUR (human) research • there is a major problem with it:ANIMALS CANNOT CONSENT • even if there is no experiment involved you still need to give consent – when u go to the doctor u give consent to him we cant get consent because animals cannot communicate • • the big issue “ is using animals in our research even though they cannot provide consent • can we acquire consent from animal caregivers like we do for children or incarsinated indivduals • investigate the issue on whether they should be used in research even though they cannot give consent • PICKASIDE, be specific, look for recent research, an argument and use a very specific approach • PICK ONE OF THEAGAINST OR ONE FOR • Use as many sources that fit in • HARD COPY • APASTYLE NO TITLE PAGE • Course plan: 1. Consciousness: a. What is human consciousness? b. The concept of mind c. Testing using imitation, mirror reflection, understanding of others 2. do animals have consciousness/ mind? a. Do you wonder what your pets think? b. Basic question of consciousness are: understanding of self and understanding of others c. Self- awareness? How to test it in humans and how to test it in animals d. Understanding others i. Piaget studied this in humans can animals imite? Maybe not…. Consciousness: • What does consciousness mean- it is a philosophical dilemma • In psych we talk about the experience of pain • Awareness: the concept of mind: it is hard to discuss because we are not really clear on what the mind is Do animals have consciousness? Consciousness testing 3 ways; imitation, mirror reflection and understanding of others*** Imitation: the understanding of others • what does it mean to imitate? Learning by association, Modeling- you have a mind and you understand it, you can pick up on the behaviour by no reward, it shows me that you can pick up o a behaviour and you can do the same • Condition- requires that the operation happens on the person who receives the reward Operant: the reward goes to someone else and influences you to do the same because they received the reward Mirror reflection: the understand of your self ( self awareness) MARK TEST • Amark is put on the person usually on the face and then they are put in fornt of a mirror • This test shows self-awareness • If they are self aware when they will point to the mark on themselves= SELF AWARENESS • If you put a child that is under 2 years of age in front of the mirror they will cry because they do not know who that is and do not have self awareness • Infants usually do learn it pretty quickly and are able to identify themselves • Pet, cat or dog- if you put a pet infront of the mirror they are not interested and sometimes they will get upset thinking that there is another pet there but more often then not they will not even be interested • There are species thatARE interested so does that make them self aware? Do they know that is themselves? THE UNDERSTANDING OF OTHERS: • Do I understand what motivates you as opposed to me • I have to have an awareness of what makes YOU do things for me because I do something for you… do animals have this concept of mind and consciousness? MIRROR REFLECTION = IS THE CONCEPT OF SELFAWARENESS: • Video of dolphins seeing themselves in mirror • They are studying dolphins in a 2 way mirror and witnessed that- dolphins figure it out and they show intrest to look at themselves and I wanna see what it looks like to behave and they were unable to ignore the mirror • DID THE MARK TEST on a dolphin and saw that the one with it was interested in what it was and the one without it didn’t look in the mirror • Elephants also have the ability to look at themselves in the mirror • ** they wanna figure out at what age they begin to recognize themselves • some dolphins at 6 mnths are able to figure it out and that is even younger than humans • when looking at the self awareness and this mirror task ( you are able to witesss yourself in a mirror • DOLPHINSAREABLE TO IDENTIFYTHEMSELVES BEFORE HUMANS • Primates also seem to be able to learn this too but it is controversial: at first the chimp was afraid of the mirror and then it was curiosity, they were then able to look at themselves and stick out there tounge, they looked and did the mark test with the organatange: put her infront of irror BUT it is controversial to the fact that does this mean that these apes can recognize theselves or is it that they will *** controversial 80% or 100% they will see the test….And if they don’t display this disorder they are autistic • The next test used a ape and the ability to recognize if it was a chimp or a human… they found that the ape could recognize the difference between male human voices and female and were able to identify ape vs hhuamsn UNDERSTANDING OF OTHERS: • Understanding the motivations of others • Piaget studied this in humans – the idea of operation IMITATION- used example of Japanese monlkeys • One of the monkeys discovered that the potatos being provided were covered in dirt and if they were used in sea water it would clean them and tey they would have a clean monkey • Then other monkeys did the same • The question became WAS THE ORIGNAL MONKEY MODELING BEHAVIOUR in which they could imiatie? • Were they imitating the behaviour of the favorable outcome- this answer is not clear… Imitation can often look like STIMLUS
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