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Lecture 8

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY362H5
Professor
Peter Morrow
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 8 TEST 2 12/15/2013 Reasoning: high ordered thinking: • Do they sense information from their environment: yes we have been able to prove this • Do they have cognition: yes we detect that they can Can animals change in response to their environment (learn) te ansiwer has been yes through • simple conditioning • Can they remember information Today: -We are answering can they reason, can they figure things out given an unique environment, can they adapt to that environment given there stimulus - we have problem solving Humans: e.g being cold we have a hardwired instinct to shiver but we have the ability to say that there is a problem so we put on a sweater do animals have this ability to problem solve? Problem solving: He put up a jumble of letters on the screen and demonstrated that we were able to solve it from minimal information that was prsentend- we saw that this was a dialogue between 2 people and one of them was answering a question • this demonstrated or ability to use stimuli from the environments to figure out problms REASONING: - not conditioning: it involves complex behaviours, it is problem solving - judgement - problem solving - complex behaviour (this is not conditioning becaue conditioning is based on simple procedures frontal lobe functioning: In Reasoning -involves and performs: reasoning, problem solving functioning calculations abstraction: e.g there is a test of abstraction (to determine if you can put things that don’t go together, together) e.g a similarity test- in what way are an apple and an orange alike -this is a part of our brain it is proportionately more large in humans than any other species, this is responsible for our ability to solve problems, the task that was demonstrated is complex it evolves us to be able to speak a language and to use strategies to solve it - the frontal lobe is not as large in other species - dolphins- have very large brains but don’t have good frontal lobes - delayed matching distinction also seem to involve the frontal lobe - onomaopie= words that sound like what they are spelt like - can animals use abstractions, and recognize them as symbols as something else, YES there is some evidence - the test= abstraction (in what ways are an apple and orange alike) - abstraction = symbols abstract= put them together spatial reasoning: - the first tests that were done on animals were used by tasks known as spatial reasoning - the first tasks were using mazes 2 types of spatial reasoning tasks: - solving a maze with blocked choices: - solving a maze with hidden choices: TOLMAN AND HONZIK STUDY: - it was a maze - the animal started in a go box and then at the end box there was bait - the middle was where they could wander and the triangle and square was the maze, - Test: find a way out of the box or to the other side o Once the rat decided how to get their very quickly they: o Put in a BARRIER: this is the problem- we are going to determine spatially if the animal can solve this problem (the simplest solution is that he has to go down the right arm (can rats learn this=YES) o Results: we could see that they could problem solve and learn to use the shortest distance to get to the reward nd o 2 block: the same *** showed that rats can solve this problem spatially and learned all three ways OUCET ETAL., 1983 -second maze USING CATS -the rat learned that the GOAL is head on (straight) so if you block the goal head on it requires the rat to learn to move away from the goal in order to get the goal, this is VERY sophisticated - the cat or rat is placed closer to the goal and when it is blocked *** they reason that they have to move away from the goal in order to get there other species do not seem to be good at this, they don’t know how to bring themselves back to get to the goal - humans can do this ** animals knows the goal is there and knows tha main way to get there but when blocked and put closer they cant get there - ** humans can do this if you cant then you have a psychopathology ***** impulse disorder,ADD – attention decict disorder this results from malfunctioning frontal lobes TOOLUSE: Tools= anything/ object that is a extension of that particular organism that they use to obtain something that is favorable is a tool : first determined by Jane Goodall -primates & finches(birds) use tools to get food – first determined by Jane Goodall -macques wash food: the tool is water -Otters, Crows use rocks – use rocks to open their food, crows will drop things from high elevation to break them up -crabs use sea anemones: this is when the crabs use another animal as a tool to catch food so INSIGHT: solving problems with unique solutions - the first instinct in encoding the scr
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