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PSY362 emotion + movie notes
PSY362 emotion + movie notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

Emotion – title slide -complicated skill à ex: memory -complicated set of behaviours -same set of structures involved in memory is involved with emotion -as we start looking at brains of organisms that are cognitively complex there is a hierarchy in emotional flexibility Emotion -how well you can control your range of emotions – flexibilty -starts to occur the more cognitively advanced an individual becomes -neocortex – as individuals evolve into higher cognitive capacity they begin to develop this neocortex….structure already there but you are building on -as we go up from lower mammals (ex: rat) to higher (ex: chimpanzee, human) … neocortex has ability to inhibit/excite the rest of the brain -the fact that just thinking about something can cause biological responses (ex: 2 exams in one day and you start stressing…cortisol increase, heart rate increase) top down processing -neocortex is influencing how the rest of your body is functioning – top down processing -reptilian brain is considered to be the oldest – basic brain but more tissue (ex in chimpanzee) has been added on -vital functions being controlled by brain – breathing, body temperature, hunger -reptilian brain may have some reminants of the limbic system but you don’t start seeing it until you get to the lower mammals -rat has small cortex – all mammals have cortex…just the amount varies -limbic system first emerged in mammals -allows for range of emotions -comfort is an emotion -cerebellum and brain stem = reptilian complex -basic bodily functions mediated -subcortical structures – below cortex …. Ex: limbic system -neocortex has ability to control rest of brain to certain extent -navy seals taught to override limic system using top down processing….override their nerves so that fear won’t affect their performance -if you’re not motivated then you’re not going to be interested in that particular behaviour -seek things that lead to pleasure -emotions help us to communicate nonverbally -if there is a limbic system involved…then the organism is reading body language Emotional expression & communication -entire body used to express emotionality Emotion -facial nerve primarily responsible for facial expressions -trigeminal nerve – secondary component to facial expressions but more involved in chewing and speaking -subcortical system – underneath the cortex where the limbic system becomes involved -ex: see something funny in class and you laugh (subcortical system) but then after awhile your top down processing will eventually kick in and you’ll realize you are in class and shouldn’t be laughing…eventually stop Innervations of the facial muscles -facial nerve has many branches -if nerve has many branches then it’s synapsing with various muscles of the face -cognitive component is mediating through neurons a behaviour that is false – ex: smiling for a picture….nothing funny is happening, no need to smile -muscles located near the top of the face are controlled a little differently than those at the bottom -left and right hemispheres are controlling about the top 1/3 of the face -contralaterally = opposite sides -bilaterally = two sides …..left side of face being controlled by both left and right hemisphere -if there is damage in one of the hemispheres then the other one will pick up the slack Voluntary and spontaneous expressions are managed by different areas of the brain -assume tumour in motor cortex – first picture -motor cortex being tied to neocortex is a cognitive based system…can override natural system but it just takes a bit of time for that top down processing to occur -A : voluntary -B : spontaneous Emotion -fear of strangers in infants – developmental progression -initially won’t be afraid of anyone then they start recognizing faces and fear starts to kick in especially with strangers -in case of monozygotic twins…show this developmental progression very close in time -dizygotic twins….are different Infants’ separation protests occur at the same times regardless of culture -suggests some type of biological origin….all the maximums are around the same time period Emotion -amygdala important in reactivity -part of limbic system -if there is a highly reactive individual and the activity of the amygdala is very high, regardless of whether we are looking at monkey or human, anxiety will also be very high -disregard for the rights of others – anti-social -reactivity very low Theories of emotion James-lange -fight/flight becomes activated which activates fear Cannon-bard -things occur at the same time -no delay or lag or processing -independent, simultaneous Schachter-singer -general arousal could have activation of fight/flight but not necessary then cognitive appraisal (neocortex kicks in “let me think about what this individual is experiencing at this time”….then fear kicks in Theories of education In therapy give instruction to smile….brain thinking “well I’m smiling so I must be happy” -few limitations: sometimes certain emotions/behaviours are not read appropriately -ex: scary movie – sometimes that feeling of being afraid is misinterpreted as sexual arousal Theories of e
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