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Lecture 1 Notes

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Christine Burton

Psy371: Lecture 1 January 11, 2013  Tests will only cover lecture material; the assigned readings are just to form opinions and understand the topics  Final exam is NOT cumulative Historical Approaches to Intelligence  Francis Galton was concerned with differences between individual’s intelligence o Large influence on testing and hereditary view of intelligence o Individual differences in measuring and classifying people according to their ability o Big influence on the idea that intelligence is inherited  Alfred Binet was concerned with identifying group milestones o Influenced information processing view of intelligence and cognitive development o Not interested in individual differences but comparing people to group milestones (are they where they should be?) o Thought that intelligence was something that developed with age – was NOT stable; it could change Galton (1822-1911)  Privileged, intelligent, and successful  Major life interests included measurement and ranking of ability  Highly influenced by cousin Darwin’s Origin of Species  Went to med school on account of his father’s wishes  Figured that fingerprints were all different  His Anthropometric Laboratory measured keenness of sensation and individual differences in intelligence  Invented regression and correlation to describe the relationship between items that tended to be related  In Hereditary Genius he proposed that eminence was passed down from generation to generation  Introduced “nature vs. nurture” debate, twin studies of intelligence and eugenics movement  If intelligence is inherited, then why bother educating the less eminent and their resources should be revoked – therefore really controversial issue Binet (1857-1911)  Trained as a lawyer, Binet was interested in science and human development  Believed intelligence develops with age, is highly malleable by experience, and is not unitary  With his graduate student, Theodore Simon, developed a cognitive abilities test for French schoolchildren  Introduced idea of standardizing mental tests on average groups of people  In order to design a school readiness test, he started looking at skills you need in school  Not interested in comparing students – just find the benchmark; what is the minimum that a child needs to succeed  He was designing a test but it was not designed to rank Testing-based intelligence theories  Using factor analysis, Spearman argued for the single intelligence construct, “g” o Extracted this one factor that he called general intelligence o If you are high in g, you are smart and you will be able to succeed  Thurstone’s Theory of Primary Mental Abilities proposed 7 intelligence components o Also used factor analysis and developed 7 intelligence factors  R. Cattell and Horn’s g(f)-g(c) model views intelligence as 2 major components o Argued that there are 2 factors that explain intelligence o Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence o Fluid intelligence is your ability to solve problems that are abstract and everyday problems; everyday problems – things you don’t already know o Crystallized intelligence are things you already know; language, arithmetic, etc. Information processing-based intelligence theories  Some believe processing speed serves as a good index of intelligence (e.g. Eysenck, Jenson, Vernon)  Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory assumes intelligence is a result of the interaction of mental components within ourselves and the external world o Analytic (which is essentially g) o Practical (street smarts) o Creative (thinking outside the box)  Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory proposes 8 independent types of intelligence Early Intelligence tests  Earliest intelligence tests were not pr
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