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Lecture 2

PSY372 Lecture 2 (Jan 15, 2014).docx

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Christina Gojmerac

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PSY372 - Paper 1: Article Review o Information about what to include in the first assignment and the rules - What is working memory? o “mental blackboard” o Ex. Group discussion and you’re hearing other people  Holding some pieces of information  Processing and thinking about other information o Important cognitive skills o Forms basis for other cognitive skills o Your ability to problem solve, planning, reasoning - How is working memory used? o There are many situations that working memory is used o Need to constantly keep the information active and also operate, manipulate and manage in some way - Test your working memory o Digit span task that we did in the first lecture o Not just maintaining digits, but also actively processing them o Rearranging information for the digit span backward task o Or to arrange it in sequence such as the digit span sequencing task o “Temporary workspace” that can be erased and you can put new information to make it more relevant to current task - How did we get to “working memory”? o William James who’s a famous psychologist made a distinction between short term memory and long term memory, which is refer to as primary memory and secondary memory respectively o Primary: information is stored and make available to consciousness; pay attention to and constantly active o Patient H.M, his short term memory was fine; his IQ, his reasoning and other skills remained similar before and after surgery - Capacity of STM o In the 1950s, the cognitive revolutions o George Miller proposed the magic number 7 plus or minus two which said STM has limited capacity - Capacity of STM o Chunking information because the “item” definition is flexible o Chunking ability is usually meaningful in some ways to a person, for letters, it could be acronyms o So it indicates that STM is not rigid but can use strategies to expand - Stability of STM o Not very stable - Brown Petersen Task o Distract people by engaging in another task o Memory for those digits o After 6 seconds, it’s about 50% recall, but by 16 secs, there’s virtually no recall - Forgetting o Decay is hard to test o Interference - Accessibility o Presented display to subjects o Task was to decice whether there a match o Time to access and compare - Plotting reaction time and it would show up as a linear straight - Actual results similar to predictions o Information in short term is highly accessible because you can assess in 40 secs o Other hypothesis was parallel search - Modal model o STM is the gateway to LTM through maintenance and rehearsal o Influential model and commonly used model when it first came out o Now it’s not as popular - Modal model revisited o Dynamic nature of memory rather than storage directly in LTM - A shift towards working memory o Double disassociation is when patient has lesion in region A, a long term test and short term test; they pass the short term test but fail the long term rest, so they have single dissociation o Number of experiments that demonstrated that STM storage was too simplistic - Baddeley and Hitch (1974) o Dual task experiment o 6-8 digits for digital span task o Visual d
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