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Lecture 4

PSY372 Lecture 4 (Jan 29, 2014).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Christina Gojmerac

PSY372 Lecture 4 - Emotional memory - Part 1: implicit emotional memory o Having emotion for something without knowing where it came from o Fear conditioning: o Role of amygdala in emotional memory o Applies to different species - Fear conditioning paradigm o Rat’s response to specific stimulus o How that response changes after a learning period o A light is turned on in the animal chamber; no fearful response o When rat receives foot shock (aversive stimulus), it will respond by jumping o Loud noise (another unconditioned stimulus that is aversive in nature) will also create the jumping response - Fear conditioning paradigm o When light is associated with foot shock, it will be trained to be startled with the light o When the light is shown alone, the rat will have a jumping response (conditioned response); anticipatory fear o When rat is paired with light and another aversive stimulus, it will show potentiated startle (exaggerated response) - Neural circuitry of fear learning o Autonomic response o Damage to amygdala will impair the conditioned fear response - Brain image o Convergence zone o Lots of input to amygdala from different places - #3 o Reach amygdala through separate and simultaneous groups o Incoming from environment will project to thalamus (relay centre) and then information will go to amygdala; quick but crude analysis; subcortical “low road” o Information about sensory stimulus is also projected to amygdala; but first to thalamus and then to sensory regions in order to thoroughly analyze the stimulus and then it goes to the amygdala; complete information but takes longer (cortical, “high road”) - Amygdala damage o With amygdala damage, will fail to demonstrate indirect response o But when asked to report the parameters, they do know about the fear conditions; dissociation - Amygdala damage o S.P patient o Removed parts of medial temporal lobe - #3 o Skin conductance response; measuring the sweat on the hands o Demonstrated normal fear response to shock; no change to response after it was paired with the blue square - #4 o When presented with shock alone, both S.P and normal person has elevated peak; control subject shows increase in peak when shown conditioned stimulus, but S.P did not and she was surprised - #5 o Explicit memory was okay, what does explicit memory depend on?  Hippocampus o When the two groups were compared, their patterns of data are different o Hippocampus damaged will experience the elevated peak when shown conditioned stimulus but could not explicitly report on it o Double association - Part 2: explicit emotional memory o The role of amygdala is not purely to do with explicit memory o Does interact with hippocampus and other areas to experience emotional memory o Stimuli in which emotional properties are learned explicitly; - Learning fear explicitly o Acquiring fear by direct experience o A dog bit you; unconditioned response is to cry; acquired/learn that dog is neutral stimulus is now a conditioned stimulus o OR, the neighbour tells you that the dog is a mean dog and might bite you; potential aversive properties learnt explicitly o Avoid certain stimuli based on what we’re told; cognitive representation and it can lead to fear respon
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