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Lecture 5

PSY372 Lecture 5 (Feb 26, 2014).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Christina Gojmerac

PSY372 Lecture 5: Episodic Memory - Episodic memory is a type of declarative memory - Remembering episodic memories o Why some memories are remembered, but some are forgotten - Encoding o Taking external information (time of event happening) and then storing it - E2 o 3 key factors that affects encoding  How much we attend to the info  How much we elaborate the info  How much we practice/rehearse o Strengthen encoding process - Encoding and attention o We don’t give full attention o Common memory slip is usually due to not paying attention at time of the situation o When attention is divided, encoding will be weaker  Study in which two groups were tested on their memory depending on whether their full attention was given to the memory task or divided attention • Typically, full attention group remember more than divided attention - Encoding and attention o PET study  “easy task”; less attention demanding  “harder task”; high attention demanding  Behavior performance was similar in that people remember more info in the easy condition than the harder condition  What grey matter was activated? • Left frontal lobe was more active in easy condition - Encoding and elaboration o Not why, but HOW you think about something o There are different aspects to any given stimulus o Things that are superficial or elaborative o Deeper you think about something, deeper you process, the more likely you’ll create a durable memory and remember it later on - Encoding and elaboration o LOP experiment o Shallow, intermediate or deep words o Presented with these information, and ask to think about the words o They were not aware they were going to be tested on their memory - E3 o Memory differs across the three conditions o The words were more recognized when the words were thought in the deep condition o Incidental learning o Episodic memory benefits from elaboration of meaning at the time of the event o Relate this to everyday life, how you can remember some people’s faces while you can’t remember others - E4 o Challenges  There are problems with saying memories are considered “shallow” if memory is not remembered while memories that were remembered are considered “deep” because it’s not that simple - E5 o Principle of processing of encoding is most effective o Participants encode words in different ways o Present two different target words in different types of sentences  Semantic condition  Phonological condition - E6 o Two retrieval conditions  Standard recognition  Rhyme recognition - E7 o The table of results - E8 o Encoding specificity principle o Tulving and Thompson experiment o Given the first word and have to retrieve the second word o Ex. You’re in the kitchen, and you think of returning your book. You go out and then when you come back and go back into your kitchen, you remember that you didn’t return your book. - E9 o Used to direct attention or elaborate - E10 o Subsequent memory paradigm  Look at neural activation and sort that by what the person remember - Encoding and practice o Generation effect  When we come up with information by ourselves o Spacing effect  Space things out over time to enhance memory - E2 o Generation effect  Actively generating info  Constantly practicing and doing - E3 o Generation effect test  Learning word pairs  In one condition, just given two words that are synonym (deeper) or rhyme  In second condition, person is given the first word and first letter of second word and then asked to generate the second word  In the testing condition, given the first word and asked to recall the second word - E4 o Probability of recall is high when the person generated the word o Synonyms are more memorable o Left frontal regio
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