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Psy374 Lecture2

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Meredyth Daneman

Psy374 Lecture2 Sept 18 Phonology, sound pattern of language. Include basic elements(phonemes) and rules for their combination. Eg b, th, Momrphology, building words. Smallest unit that has meanings. Syntax: structure and rules for building sentences. Semantics: meaning at level of words ohrases and sentences Pragmatic: rules for how literal meaning can be changed by social context. English has abt 40 phonemes. Some lg have less. But can produce infinite number of sentences C sound like [k] [s] not one to one relationship. how we make sounds? Push air thru lungs, larynx, out thru mouth or nose. Vowels vs consonants: vowel hv air go thru. Con, [p] [b] [k] stop consonanats Consonants; [p] Place of articulation: bilabial(2 lips) labiodentals(teeth on lip) dentail(teeth against tongue) alveolar(tongue behind top teeth) palatal velar(k,g) glottal (h) Manner of articulation: stops, fricatives (f,v let air squeeze out), affricative ( stop and let it squeeze out, ch, j ) nasals(air out, velum down, out frm noise) liquids(l,r, roll over the tongue) glides( like vowels) Voicing: [b][z] is voiced [p] [s]no voice Phoneme is a family of diff sounds perceived to be the same sound Spill [p] Pill [ph] Aspiration difference Underlying rules of how v and c combine Sequence constraints: blemp vs bnemp (bn is harder to pronounce in English) Eng allows only 9 consonants to precede /r/ at the beginning of a word: [ p b t d k g f th s] At the beginning of an english word, /r/ can be precede by a stop or a voiceless fricative as long as it is not alveolar [s] Pronunciation variations I put stewed turnips in a bottle Unaspirated [t] when followed by vowel but not in initial position --- stewed Morphology: types and rules Smallest unit that cont
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