Psy374 Lecture2 Sept 18
Phonology, sound pattern of language. Include basic elements(phonemes) and rules for their
combination. Eg b, th,
Momrphology, building words. Smallest unit that has meanings.
Syntax: structure and rules for building sentences.
Semantics: meaning at level of words ohrases and sentences
Pragmatic: rules for how literal meaning can be changed by social context.
English has abt 40 phonemes. Some lg have less. But can produce infinite number of sentences
C sound like [k] [s] not one to one relationship.
how we make sounds? Push air thru lungs, larynx, out thru mouth or nose.
Vowels vs consonants: vowel hv air go thru. Con, [p] [b] [k] stop consonanats
Place of articulation: bilabial(2 lips) labiodentals(teeth on lip) dentail(teeth against tongue)
alveolar(tongue behind top teeth) palatal velar(k,g) glottal (h)
Manner of articulation: stops, fricatives (f,v let air squeeze out), affricative ( stop and let it squeeze out,
ch, j ) nasals(air out, velum down, out frm noise) liquids(l,r, roll over the tongue) glides( like vowels)
Voicing: [b][z] is voiced [p] [s]no voice
Phoneme is a family of diff sounds perceived to be the same sound
Underlying rules of how v and c combine
Sequence constraints: blemp vs bnemp (bn is harder to pronounce in English)
Eng allows only 9 consonants to precede /r/ at the beginning of a word:
[ p b t d k g f th s]
At the beginning of an english word, /r/ can be precede by a stop or a voiceless fricative as long as it is
not alveolar [s]
I put stewed turnips in a bottle
Unaspirated [t] when followed by vowel but not in initial position --- stewed
Morphology: types and rules Smallest unit that cont