Class Notes (860,433)
CA (521,022)
UTM (24,396)
PSY (4,265)
PSY384H5 (12)
Lecture 11

PSY384H5 Lecture 11: Lecture 11

4 Pages
102 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY384H5
Professor
Elizabeth Johnson

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Description
Lecture 11 nd March 22 , 2012 Language and the Brain Two main causes of language loss: 1. Head injury 2. Stroke • Blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by a blood clot • Bursts because of weakening of the blood vessel walls • Blood supply to brain cells is interrupted and cell death results The left hemisphere of the brain • is specialized for language  this is a general but true statement but is still debated • Sudden language difficulties are a good sign that a patient may have suffered damage to their left hemisphere **Question: What does the fact that language seems to be located in the left half of the brain mean? **Question: Does it mean that this part of the brain is genetically hard-wired specifically for speech and language? • ‘There is a clear evolutionary advantage in being able to communicate, but whether evolution has had time to encode a genetic basis for language structure (grammar) is unclear. • Presumably, there is a part of our brains that encodes the knowledge and experience relevant for riding a bicycle. But when that particular bit of neuro-anatomy was laid down, was it laid down with bicycle..?” - ? Aphasia • Disturbance of language usage or comprehension • Due to some form of trauma • Trauma resulting in aphasia almost always to  LEFT SIDE • It may involve the impairment of the power to speak, write, read, gesture, or comprehend spoken, written, or gestured language. • Two main types of aphasia o Broca’s area (more frontal area)  Impaired ability to speak  Still able to comprehend  Slow, laborious, non-fluent speech  Agrammatical utterances (Agrammatic aphasics)  Content versus function words (function words: a, the, etc)  Anomia (they can’t come up with words for things a lot; tip of the tongue phenomena)  Depending on size of the damage may exhibit general motor impairments o Wernicke’s area (more in temporal lobe)  No problem in producing speech at normal speaking rate  Difficulties comprehending (others and themselves)  Do not maintain logical, coherent conversation  Fluent (fluent aphasics)  neologisms (made up words)  Lexical meanings lost  Often unaware of deficit (sensitive) Conduction Aphasia • Problem with word repetitions • use some words incorrectly, mix up words • Aware of problem • Involvement of Arcuate fasciculus Lateralization • Trauma to the left cerebral hemisphere Disruptive to language • Evidence o Split-brain patients- medical reasons have corpus callosum severed o Corpus callosum – neural fibres separating two hemispheres  Patients with epilepsy reduced chance of seizures when severed  Patients cannot talk about things in their left visual field (right hemisphere) • Trauma to right hemisphere not so disruptive to language **Question: When does the brain become lateralized? • In most adults, the left planum temporal is significantly larger than the right Neonatal study • Anatomical studies have shown that this is also the case in neonates (1 day to 3 months, mean age 12 days) • As in adults, the anatomical differences were not as pronounced in newborn males as it was in newborn females o These are not functional differences, but are anatomical differences • Authors Conclusion o Neonatal asymmetry indicates that the infant is born with a pre-programmed biological capacity to process speech sounds o Wittelson & Pallie (1973)  this was from back in the day, now people want to know where this asymmetry is coming from Study: • Lateralization for language in 3 month olds (Dahaene-Lambertz et al., 2002) • Presented both sleeping and awake 3-month-olds with normal and revers
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit