• Test: 90 minutes. Labelling, mc, short answer. Not just brain
lebelling..anything and everything on the slides is fair game
• POSTER PRESENTATION: 4 by 3 poster. Choose an empirical article. Send her
the article in a pdf format and she will improve it. Has to be from the last six
years. Has to have an intro, method, results and discussion! NOT A REVIEW.
Has to be a study that was done. Has to be about motivational systems: has
to have some biological measure. Can do any topic u want. Just has to be
something one is MOTIVATED to do.. i.e. sex, eating, parenting etc. put only
the imp elements of each sections. Someone should be able to look at it and
understand it without u explaining. Most of your poster will be pictorial.. little
words. Include yourself as the first author. Both names (u and ur partners)
should be listed first and should be in bold. Include uoft sauga. Don’t have to
include the address but include the country. Put the logo of who funded the
research AND ALSO LOGO OF WHERE THE RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED
• -have to know the study inside and out. Have to pretend that u did the study.
Will ask Qs about info in the study but not in the poster.. know EVERYTHING!.
Intro: why we studied it. Method: how we did it. Results: what we found.
Discussion: what we thing.
• -on ppt, see how she set it up (custom). Select all. When u are done, either
pdf it or group it all so that nothing can be moved when printing. Do it on ppt
• -contrast is SUPER important. When you select your font color and
background, make sure the contrast is high. Shouldn’t have to squint to see
• -shouldn’t need to guide anyone through it.. should be able to follow it easily.
• -DO YOUR OWN GRAPHS. When you copy and paste, it can be a bit blurry, the
font isn’t the same etc. marks off for the asthetics component.
• -look presentable the day of the presentation
• -5 minute presentation
• Select one animal poster and one human poster and describe the study. Know
FOUR POSTERS VERY WELL!!!. Posters will be on the exam.. don’t need to
know all posters but know 4 really really well. Don’t need to know the
studies.. just the posters
• INTRACRINE MEANS WITHIN THE CELL. Communication btw within the cell! =
• Autocrine communication. i.e. neurotrans are released, the presynaptic
neuron reads the neurotrans and uses this info to know when to stop
releasing that neurotrans
• Endocrine comm: not in an adjacent cell. Hormones are released into the
blood and have their effects distally on target issue. I.e. estrogen released
into the blood but only effects organs that have estrogen receptors. (i.e. breasts). We have a ton of estrogen receptors in our brain too have a lot of
estrogen in hippocampus imp for memory. Why women have the best
memory during ovulation. Memory a bit loopy during pms. Our memory
performance circulates around the month. For men, it’s more constant.
• Ectocrine comm: substances released OUTSIDE of the individual. Cause a
biological response n another animal. i.e. pheromones. There are pheromones
in your swear that effect people around you.
• A hormone can be a neurotrans too! Leptin: functions as a hormone when
released into blood. But also works as a neurotrans and fucntions as a
paracrine comm. USED FOR PARACRINE AND AUTOCRINE
• Proliferation: division/growth
• Anatomy of endocrine system: know all the things. They are all involved in
• Sympathetic + parasympathetictarget diff glands. Work opp. to each other.
• Neurotrans + hormones effect our motivation. A change in our motivation
changes the probability of us engaging in a particular B. i.e. high T: greater P
of u seeking and thus having sex.
• 30 min after u wake up: when cortisol level is the highest
• 2, 3 or 4 a.a. = peptide OR protein hormone right???????. Whats the diff btw
polypeptide and protein hormone????? If string of the aa are short we call
them a peptide hormone. If the string of aa is long, we call them a protein
• Amine hormones: just 1 a.a.; simpler in structure.
• Most of vertebrae hormones are protein hormones.
• Protein/peptide hormones Don’t need a carrier protein to go to the target cell
cuz can dissolve in B. but their metabolism is slow cuz their attach to other
plasma proteins on their way
• Half life of a hormone is two hours = in two hours, u would have half of what I
gave u in ur body
• Polypeptides have a longer half life
• 6 releasing hormones: A lot of these hormones act as neurotrans in other
areas of the brain. Act like hormones in hypothalamus but neurotrans in other
places of the brain.
• DA effects ALL motivated behaviour. Neurohormone in a hypothalamus. Is a
neurotransmitter but in some limited cases, it acts as a hormone. PIH and MIH
= when DA is acting like a hormone.
• Steroid hormones are identical in all vertebrae species. Protein and peptide
hormones aren’t the same in all species..have diff chains of a.a. in diff
species • Know all the sub nuclei of the pituitary in the diagram
• Median aminins within the hypothalamus releases all these hormones and
effects the pituitary.
• Anterior and posterior pituitary are completely separate in function
• Anterior pituitary has a very speicifc cellular makeup: has 3 types of cells
• Basophils: releases TSH LH and FSH(stimulates the growth of follicles in the
gonads). Hypothalamus releases gnrh. Causes pituitary to release LH and
FSH, which releases steroids in the gonads.
• H releases TRH. Anterior P releases TSH. Causes thyroids to release their
• RELEASING HORMONE STIMULATING HORMONE THE ACTUAL HORMONE
• Negative feedback system: causes ur brain to know that there is enough of a
hormones (i.e. estrogen) circulating in the breain and that u don’t need
anymore. Anabolic steroid use causes testes to shrink cuz acts as a negative
feedback system in a way.. tells ur brain to not release GnRh.. FSH LF and T
isn’t released. Gonads aren’t used so start to shrink
• Prolactin = lactation hormone
• Posterior pituitary: releases vasopressin and oxytocin. Only call vasopressing
ADH when we are talking about drinking. Diuretic = sumn that makes u pee.
• U can release oxytocin in anticipation of nipple stimulation baby cries u
know the baby is hungry oxytocin is released. (moms have milk letdown
even if they hear another baby cry)
• Alveoli = nipple area
• When u drink alcohol, ADH is inhibited.
• When u bleed a lot, it will constrict ur bl