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psy398 lec 1.pdf

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Emis Akbari

• Test: 90 minutes. Labelling, mc, short answer. Not just brain lebelling..anything and everything on the slides is fair game • POSTER PRESENTATION: 4 by 3 poster. Choose an empirical article. Send her the article in a pdf format and she will improve it. Has to be from the last six years. Has to have an intro, method, results and discussion! NOT A REVIEW. Has to be a study that was done. Has to be about motivational systems: has to have some biological measure. Can do any topic u want. Just has to be something one is MOTIVATED to do.. i.e. sex, eating, parenting etc. put only the imp elements of each sections. Someone should be able to look at it and understand it without u explaining. Most of your poster will be pictorial.. little words. Include yourself as the first author. Both names (u and ur partners) should be listed first and should be in bold. Include uoft sauga. Don’t have to include the address but include the country. Put the logo of who funded the research AND ALSO LOGO OF WHERE THE RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED RIGHT? • -have to know the study inside and out. Have to pretend that u did the study. Will ask Qs about info in the study but not in the poster.. know EVERYTHING!. Intro: why we studied it. Method: how we did it. Results: what we found. Discussion: what we thing. • -on ppt, see how she set it up (custom). Select all. When u are done, either pdf it or group it all so that nothing can be moved when printing. Do it on ppt • -contrast is SUPER important. When you select your font color and background, make sure the contrast is high. Shouldn’t have to squint to see the writing • -shouldn’t need to guide anyone through it.. should be able to follow it easily. • -DO YOUR OWN GRAPHS. When you copy and paste, it can be a bit blurry, the font isn’t the same etc. marks off for the asthetics component. • -look presentable the day of the presentation  • -5 minute presentation • Select one animal poster and one human poster and describe the study. Know FOUR POSTERS VERY WELL!!!. Posters will be on the exam.. don’t need to know all posters but know 4 really really well. Don’t need to know the studies.. just the posters  LECTURE TWO • INTRACRINE MEANS WITHIN THE CELL. Communication btw within the cell! = intracrine communication • Autocrine communication. i.e. neurotrans are released, the presynaptic neuron reads the neurotrans and uses this info to know when to stop releasing that neurotrans • Endocrine comm: not in an adjacent cell. Hormones are released into the blood and have their effects distally on target issue. I.e. estrogen released into the blood but only effects organs that have estrogen receptors. (i.e. breasts). We have a ton of estrogen receptors in our brain too  have a lot of estrogen in hippocampus imp for memory. Why women have the best memory during ovulation. Memory a bit loopy during pms. Our memory performance circulates around the month. For men, it’s more constant. • Ectocrine comm: substances released OUTSIDE of the individual. Cause a biological response n another animal. i.e. pheromones. There are pheromones in your swear that effect people around you. • A hormone can be a neurotrans too! Leptin: functions as a hormone when released into blood. But also works as a neurotrans and fucntions as a paracrine comm. USED FOR PARACRINE AND AUTOCRINE • Proliferation: division/growth • Anatomy of endocrine system: know all the things. They are all involved in the system • Sympathetic + parasympathetictarget diff glands. Work opp. to each other. • Neurotrans + hormones effect our motivation. A change in our motivation changes the probability of us engaging in a particular B. i.e. high T: greater P of u seeking and thus having sex. • 30 min after u wake up: when cortisol level is the highest • 2, 3 or 4 a.a. = peptide OR protein hormone right???????. Whats the diff btw polypeptide and protein hormone????? If string of the aa are short we call them a peptide hormone. If the string of aa is long, we call them a protein hormone • Amine hormones: just 1 a.a.; simpler in structure. • Most of vertebrae hormones are protein hormones. • Protein/peptide hormones Don’t need a carrier protein to go to the target cell cuz can dissolve in B. but their metabolism is slow cuz their attach to other plasma proteins on their way • Half life of a hormone is two hours = in two hours, u would have half of what I gave u in ur body • Polypeptides have a longer half life • 6 releasing hormones: A lot of these hormones act as neurotrans in other areas of the brain. Act like hormones in hypothalamus but neurotrans in other places of the brain. • DA effects ALL motivated behaviour. Neurohormone in a hypothalamus. Is a neurotransmitter but in some limited cases, it acts as a hormone. PIH and MIH = when DA is acting like a hormone. • Steroid hormones are identical in all vertebrae species. Protein and peptide hormones aren’t the same in all species..have diff chains of a.a. in diff species • Know all the sub nuclei of the pituitary in the diagram • Median aminins within the hypothalamus releases all these hormones and effects the pituitary. • Anterior and posterior pituitary are completely separate in function • Anterior pituitary has a very speicifc cellular makeup: has 3 types of cells • Basophils: releases TSH LH and FSH(stimulates the growth of follicles in the gonads). Hypothalamus releases gnrh. Causes pituitary to release LH and FSH, which releases steroids in the gonads. • H releases TRH. Anterior P releases TSH. Causes thyroids to release their hormones. • RELEASING HORMONE  STIMULATING HORMONE THE ACTUAL HORMONE • Negative feedback system: causes ur brain to know that there is enough of a hormones (i.e. estrogen) circulating in the breain and that u don’t need anymore. Anabolic steroid use causes testes to shrink cuz acts as a negative feedback system in a way.. tells ur brain to not release GnRh.. FSH LF and T isn’t released. Gonads aren’t used so start to shrink • Prolactin = lactation hormone • Posterior pituitary: releases vasopressin and oxytocin. Only call vasopressing ADH when we are talking about drinking. Diuretic = sumn that makes u pee. • U can release oxytocin in anticipation of nipple stimulation  baby cries u know the baby is hungry oxytocin is released. (moms have milk letdown even if they hear another baby cry) • Alveoli = nipple area • When u drink alcohol, ADH is inhibited. • When u bleed a lot, it will constrict ur bl
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