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PSY440H5 (2)
Lecture 2

lecture 2 biopsychology notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY440H5
Professor
L I V I N G S T O N
Semester
Fall

Description
Biopsychology
 
 The
Nervous
System
 • the
nervous
system
is
divided
into
two
parts
 – the
central
nervous
system
refers
to
the
brain
and
the
spinal
cord
 – the
peripheral
nervous
system
refers
to
the
neural
pathways
going
to
and
coming
from
the
 central
nervous
system;
these
are
all
the
other
nerves
in
the
body
not
encased
in
bone
 • sensory
(or
afferent)
neurons
relay
information
from
the
sense
receptors
to
the
spinal
cord
and
 brain
 • motor
(or
efferent)
neurons
relay
information
from
the
central
nervous
system
to
the
muscles
 
 • reflex
arcs
allow
behavior
responses
without
processing
by
the
higher‐order
levels
of
the
brain‐‐ these
are
essential
for
survival
and
allow
for
rapid
motor
responses
 • for
example,
stimulating
the
correct
area
of
the
kneecap
will
cause
the
leg
the
jerk
or
removing
 the
hand
when
it
touches
something
very
hot
 
 • the
peripheral
nervous
system
(PNS)
can
be
divided
into
two
systems
 – the
somatic
nervous
system
is
in
charge
of
voluntary
skeletal
muscles
that
allow
us
to
move
 – the
autonomic
nervous
system
is
in
charge
of
predominantly
involuntary
smooth
and
cardiac
 muscle
activity
 • this
includes
the
heart,
lungs,
internal
organs
and
glands
 • the
autonomic
nervous
system
can
be
divided
into
two
systems
 – the
parasympathetic
nervous
system
is
in
charge
of
the
body
at
rest
(slowing
down
biological
 processes)
and
in
digestion
of
food
 – the
sympathetic
nervous
system
kicks
in
during
times
of
stress,
fear
or
rage‐‐it
controls
our
 “fight
or
flight”
behaviors
and
accelerates
functions
like
heart
rate
and
blood
pressure
 
 The
Neuron
Diagram
p.
55
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 The
Neuron
 • the
dendrites
receive
incoming
information
 • the
cell
body
(sometimes
called
the
soma)
which
contains
the
nucleus,
and
is
the
living
part
of
the
 neuron
 • the
axon
is
the
long
fiber
over
which
outgoing
messages
travel
 • the
terminal
buttons
(or
end
buttons,
terminal
branches
of
the
axon
or
synaptic
knobs)
are
the
 transmitters,
sending
information
on
to
the
next
neuron
 • the
space
between
neurons
is
the
synaptic
gap

 • the
synapse
is
made
up
of
the
axon
terminal
buttons
of
one
neuron,
the
synaptic
gap,
and
the
 dendrites
of
the
next
neuron
 
 Neurotransmitters
 • there
are
several
neurotransmitters
or
chemicals
released
by
the
synaptic
vesicles
that
travel
 across
the
synaptic
gap
and
affect
adjacent
neurons
 • these
can
be
 – inhibitory
which
inhibits
the
next
cell
from
firing
 – excitatory
which
excites
the
next
cell
into
firing
 • major
neurotransmitters:

 – dopamine
which
inhibitory
neurotransmitter
involved
in
motor
movement
and
alertness
 • lack
of
dopamine
is
linked
to
Parkinson's
Disease
 • excessive
dopamine
levels
are
linked
to
schizophrenia
 – serotonin
which
is
a
neurotransmitter
involved
in
mood
control
 • obsessive‐compulsive
disorder
(OCD)
is
linked
to
excessive
serotonin
 • depression
is
linked
to
clinical
depression
 • acetylcholine
is
involved
in
motor
movement
 – lack
of
acetylcholine
is
linked
to
Alzheimer's
Disease
 • norepinephrine
which
is
involved
in
arousal,
wakefulness,
leaning,
memory,
depression
and
mania
 • endorphins
are
associated
with
pain
control
and
involved
in
addictions
 
 Reuptake
Mechanisms
 •



antidepressants
work
by
increasing
the
availability
of
norepinephrine
or
serotonin
 –
 these
neurotransmitters
elevate
mood
and
arousal
 •
 Prozac
(Zoloft
and
Paxil)
partially
blocks
the
reabsorption
and
removal
of
serotonin
from
 synapses
 –


 because
they
slow
the
vacuuming
serotonin
in
the
synapse
they
are
called
selective
serotonin
 reuptake
inhibitors
(SSRIs)
 •

 other
dual‐action
antidepressants
work
by
blocking
the
reabsorption
or
breakdown
of
both
 norepinephrine
and
serotonin
 –


 dual
action
drugs
have
more
potential
side
effects—dry
mouth,
weight
gain,
hypertension,
 dizziness
 –
 they
are
administered
via
a
patch,
bypassing
the
intestines
and
liver,
reducing
the
side
effects
 
 Old
Methods
of
Brain
Study
 • there
are
several
methods
of
brain
study
which
have
been
conducted
in
the
past,
with
new,
 computerized
studies
rendering
more
accurate
information
 • old
methods
of
brain
study
include:

 – direct
stimulation
(or
microelectrode
method):
part
of
the
brain
is
stimulated
to
see
its
effect

 – evoked
potential:
part
of
the
brain
is
monitored
to
see
if
external
stimuli
change
its
functioning

 – lesioning
(or
ablation):
severing
or
cutting
parts
of
the
brain

 – EEG:
measures
brain
wave
activity‐‐frequently
used
in
dream
research

 
 New
Methods
of
Brain
Study
 • new
methods
of
brain
study
include:

 – MRI
:
magnetic
fields
from
radio
waves
to
look
at
density
and
brain
material
 – PET
:
positron
emission
tomography,
uses
radioactive
material,
good
for
metabolic
activity
of
 the
brain;
measures
how
much
the
brain
is
using
of
certain
chemicals
(e.g.
glucose)
 – CT­SCAN
:
uses
X‐rays
to
look
at
soft
tissue

 – fMRI:
functional
MRIs
combine
elements
of
PET
and
MRI
scans;
looks
for
blood
flow
and
can
 tie
brain
structures
to
cognitive
brain
activities
 – SPECT
:
single
proton
emission
computerized
axial
tomography,
traces
blood
flow
in
the
brain

 – SQUID
:
super
conducting
quantum
interference
device,
senses
tiny
changes
in
the
brain's
 magnetic
fields
and
represents
them
in
3‐D,
deals
with
electrical
impulses
from
neural
firing
 
 The
Brain
Diagram
p.
75
 
 
 The
Three
Brains
 • the
brain
can
be
divided
into
three
brains‐‐forebrain,
midbrain
and
hindbrain
 • the
forebrain
includes:

 – hypothalamus:
controls
hunger,
thirst,
sexual

behavior,
body
temperature
and
motivation

 – thalamus:
the
relay
center
for
sense
receptors

 – cerebral
cortex:
higher‐order
thinking
and
language

 – corpus
callosum:
band
of
fibers
that
connects
the

two
hemispheres

 • the
midbrain:

 – integrates
some
sensory
information
and
muscle
movements
 – includes
the
reticular
formation
(not
on
diagram):
the
alert
system
of
the
brain

 • the
hindbrain
includes:

 – cerebellum:
controls
balance,
fine
movement
and
muscle
tone

 – pons:
the
sleep‐wake
cycle

 – medulla:
controls
breathing,
heart
rate
and
blood

pressure

 
 • the
brainstem­­the
midbrain
and
hindbrain
combined
that
are
typically
considered
the
most
 primitive
part
of
the
brain
 • phylogeny‐‐the
study
of
the
evolutionary
development
of
humans
 
 The
Limbic
System
 • also
included
is
the
limbic
system
which
includes:

 – the
amygdala
is
responsible
for
some
aspects
of
memory
as
well
as
aggressive
and
defensive
 behaviors
 – the
hippocampus
is
also
responsible
for
memory
and
preservation
 – the
septum
regulates
aggression,
pleasure
and
sexual
arousal
 
 
 • removal
of
the
hippocampus
has
resulted
in
significant
problems
with
memory
 – anterograde
amnesia‐‐this
is
the
inability
to
develop
new
memories
while
older
memories
 remain
intact
 – retrograde
amnesia‐‐memory
loss
just
prior
to
a
traumatic
event
or
brain
injury
 
 The
Limbic
System
Diagram
p.
72
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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