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Lecture 10

lecture 10

Course Code
Ajay Rao

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1,000 CE North West India was attacked by Turkish Muslims which established the
Sultanate, the first major empire in South Asia. The empire expanded through all of
South Asia. There were regional Sultanates too.
Vijayanagara: Hindu empire in south India surrounded by regional Sultanates.
After the Sultanates there were the Mongols who were Muslims too.
We can question if the clash of civilizations happened. Some argue that India is a
sacred Islamic land. Adams peak is a place where Adam has been + Buddha has
been + Saiva relic is. Hindus in temples worshiped in the direction of Mecca.
Conflict vs. Connection?
When we meet different people, we know who we are. So Islamic encounter forced
Hinduism to become better defined!
Translation of Sultanate into Hindu is Hindu Raya Sultrana -> protected by the
gods (not an Islamic concept). Means: Sultan among gods. Therefore, the kings of
Vijayanagara say they are sultans among Hindus => not always a conflict.
The people in Bengal, in the east, which is known as Bangaladish today, did not
convert, they were part of the expansion of a frontier where they were not Hindus or
Muslims (boundary of civilization where people who are out of the boundary are not
civilized). The frontier expanded to the east where religion was very important for
expanding the frontier. Sufis (Islamic group) were interested in expanding the
frontier. The earliest Bengali text is Islamic. The Bengali language was used to
spread to the Bengali people.
Studard thought his text is Islamic. Try to translate Islamic concepts into Bengali
to help the people understand! E.g. call Allah Visnu! Text is like a mix between
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