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Indus Valley Civilization

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ajay Rao

RLG205 th Sept 14 Indus Valley Civilization - Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley – 3 oldest civilizations - Indus River in Pakistan - lots of material objects, but no texts - ancient cities – Harappa and Mohanjo-Daro - 3 and 4 millennia B.C. (2000-3000 B.C.) - very sophisticated civilization o structural elements o separated by 350 miles but show similarities o both cities have the major elements of a city – central planning  thus must have a central state structure – co-ordination of the construction of the cities  ex. Mohanjo-Daro: The Great Bath  ex. Mohanjo-Daro: Granery – agriculture, economy - Indus Valley Seals o what do they mean? - Dravidian language family – spoken in the southernmost part of India (Tamil, Telugu etc.) o theory of the seals is based on how language works o languages are related to each other o theory is that old script in the seals is modern Dravidian - how did the civilization die and there is no connection? o many theories… o unlike regards to the script, we have better evidence to judge the theories  consensus - what are the major theories? o invasion (old theory) o internal collapse (famine, economic, natural disaster) - theory of invasion/conquest o Indus Valley civilization was replaced by the Vedic Civilization o natural idea is that there must have been a conquest of the Indus people by the Vedic people o but when archaeologists looked at the ancient world, there is no evidence to show for any violence o Vedic are called Aryans – came into Asia after o thus there is a new hypothesis - theory of internal collapse o related to changes in environmental conditions – mainly flooding
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