SOC322H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Moral Panic, Visible Minority, September 11 Attacks

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31 Oct 2018
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Time to work on paper
Take ten minutes to (re)formulate thesis statement/argument.
Begin to draft outline of your papers.
Trump on Immigration and Crime
Say that they're more likely to be criminal so more people agree and dislike them
Open Canada
Openness vs closeness
Open borders vs closed borders
Canada is a model for openness
The Canadian Story
Immigration has been central to nation building and social development in Canada.
Unfortunately, immigrant lives in Canada often feature struggle, discrimination, and a
variety of vexing social problems.
The Canadian Story
While the focus of this chapter is on immigration and immigrants, it is important to
recognize at the outset the place and contributions of substantial numbers of non-
immigrants to Canada.
The colonization of North America by France and Britain in the seventeenth century
brought the first immigrants to Canada.
The Canadian Story
Since 1867, the Canadian government’s decisions concerning who should be allowed
into the country have been guided by two questions: ‘Are certain immigrants better
suited than others for certain kinds of jobs?’ and ‘Are certain immigrants better
candidates than others for participation in Canadian social and political life?’
The Canadian Story
Fueled by a dramatic growth in the numbers of non-European countries the ethno-
racial diversity absorbed by Canada during a relatively short period of time has raised
a number of challenges.
First and foremost among these is how to both identify and mitigate the impact of the
various structural and systemic barriers that create inequality in Canadian society for
immigrants, especially for racial and visible minorities.
Immigrants as Offenders
The media plays an important role in fostering a perceived relationship between
immigration and crime.
Anti-immigrant sentiments are most apparent in the treatment of racial and visible
minorities, leading some to argue that the immigrant-crime connection is the
outcome of a media-driven moral panic.
Wortley (2009) traces the recent history of this phenomenon in Canada back to 1994
when a black male assailant murdered a white female in Toronto. The “Just Desserts”
shooting.
Immigrants as Offenders
According to national public opinion data, 21 per cent of Canadian citizens surveyed in
1995 either agreed or strongly agreed that immigrants increase crime; that number
grew to 27 per cent of those surveyed in 2003.
This finding supports Jiwani’s assertion that immigrants in Canada are perceived to be
‘a social threat in terms of their proclivity to crime’.
A finding that is strengthened by the fact that race/immigrant specific crime data are
not collected by the criminal justice system, making it difficult to arrive at such a
conclusion with any degree of confidence.
Immigrants as Offenders
Opium Act – 1908.
Wortley and Tanner’s (2006, p. 34) research on urban youth gangs found that
immigration status was not related to criminal gang membership.
Research conducted by Hagan et al. (2008) found that both first- and second-
generation immigrant youth were less likely to engage in deviant behaviour than
those born in Canada.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
Over the past 30 years, a series of events has propelled Muslims onto the
international political and media scene:
These events have led to the dissemination of four main negative stereotypes of Islam
in Western public opinion and their manipulation by politicians, intellectuals,
journalists, and pressure groups:
(1) Islam is an intolerant and even dangerous religion;
(2) democracy and modernity are impossible in Islamic societies;
(3) women’s oppression is inevitable in Islam; and
(4) immigrant Muslims are archaically religious and beset by the conflicts
of their societies of origin
Immigrants as National Security Threats
In the wake of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack, it was predicted that attitudes
toward immigration in the United States and Canada would likely become less
favourable owing to the economic and social consequences of the attack.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
Over the past 10 years or so, annual surveys have shown that Canadians ‘do not feel
comfortable’ with people associated with Islamic culture.
In the fall of 2001 (IPSOS-Reid), 82 per cent of Canadians feared that Arabs and
Muslims would become the target of prejudice.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
No Canadian law denies Muslims their rights. Nonetheless, Muslims are vulnerable to
criminalization under the laws of Parliament.
In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Parliament passed the Anti-Terrorism Act (Bill
C-36), the Foreign Missions and International Organizations Act (Bill C-35), and the
Public Safety Act (Bill C-55, which includes provisions for improving airport and
aviation security).
About 100 Muslims suspected of terrorist activity have been arrested since 2001.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
Some early twentieth-century American academics and bureaucrats argued that
immigrants were biologically inferior in comparison to non-immigrants and believed
that crime was just one of the negative consequences that came with immigration
(Martinez and Lee, 2000: 488).
More contemporary theories tend to focus on social-psychological and sociological
variables to explain immigration and crime.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
According to Wortley (2009), these explanations can be organized into four
frameworks:
the importation model,
the strain model,
the cultural conflict model,
and the bias model.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The importation model contends that some individuals decide to migrate from one
country to another with the clear intention to commit crime within the receiving
nation.
This rational actor model has been advanced to explain criminal activity linked to
international organized-crime syndicates, criminal gangs, and terrorist networks and
organizations.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The strain model posits that crime committed by immigrants is a result of their being
marginalized and excluded from the various mainstream opportunities and resources
available in the receiving nation.
Discrimination in employment, housing, education, and a host of other arenas leads to
deprivation, which in turn pushes people into crime.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The cultural conflict model highlights the problems that can emerge when immigrants
engage in behaviour that is culturally and legally acceptable in their country of origin
but is illegal in their newly adopted homeland. In such situations, immigrants may be
unaware of the receiving nation’s prohibition of the behaviour, or they may be unable
to resist the cultural pressure to continue the behaviour that emanates from the
larger immigrant group itself.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The bias model contends that this over-representation reflects discrimination within
the criminal justice system, rather than from the increased participation in crime
among immigrants.
Compared to the native born population, immigrants are more likely to come under
intense police surveillance (racial profiling), more likely to be arrested by the police,
and more likely to be convicted and given tough sentences by the criminal courts
The Immigrant Paradox
In an influential 2006 opinion editorial published in the New York Times, Robert J.
Sampson, a professor of sociology at Harvard University, argued that increased
immigration to the United States was a major factor associated with the crime drop of
the 1990s.
According to Sampson, ‘immigrants appear in general to be less violent than people
born in America, particularly when they live in neighborhoods with high numbers of
other immigrants’ (Sampson, 2006, p. A27).
The Immigrant Paradox
Indeed, recent research on immigrants in the US, however, casts doubt on the
universality of immigrants as sources of crime and violence leading to what can be
termed the immigrant paradox, where immigrants are more socially disadvantaged
yet also less likely to commit crime and evince other forms of social pathology.
The immigrant paradox finding has emerged from studies using various data sources,
research designs, and geographic areas.
Immigrants Views of the Canadian Criminal Justice System
Research by Scot Wortley and Akwasi Owusu-Bempah
Wortley, S., & Owusu-Bempah, A. (2009). Unequal before the law: Immigrant
and racial minority perceptions of the Canadian criminal justice system. Journal
of International Migration and Integration, 10(4), 447-473.and Owusu-Bempah
Research Questions
Do immigrants evaluate the performance of the police and criminal courts differently
than native-born Canadians?
1.
Do immigrants perceive more or less bias in the justice system than native-born
Canadians and if so, do they vary by time spent in Canada?
2.
Controlling for immigration status, do racial minorities evaluate the performance of
the police and courts differently than whites?
3.
Controlling for immigration status, do racial minorities perceive more bias in the
criminal justice system than whites?
4.
Have perceptions of racial bias in the justice system changed over the past 14 years?5.
The Data
2007 survey of 1,522 Toronto adults (18 years of age or older).
Stratified sample designed to produce a representative sample of black, Chinese and
white residents (over 500 respondents from each group).
Response rate=73%
Mean Scores on Police and Court Evaluation Scales, by Race
Mean Scores on Police and Court Evaluation Scales, by Length of Time in Canada
Mean Scores on Police and Court Bias Scales,by Race
Mean Scores on Police and Court Bias Scales,by Length of Time in Canada
Changes in Perceptions 1994 -2007
Changes in Perceptions 1994 -2007
Percent of respondents who believe that the police treat Chinese people worse than
white people
Discussion
In general, respondents from all racial backgrounds have favourable evaluations of the
police.
In general, both black and Chinese respondents perceive more discrimination or bias
in policing than white people.
Regardless of race, people tend to evaluate the performance of the police more highly
than the performance of the criminal courts.
Discussion Cont.
Overall, after controlling for race and other relevant variables, immigration status is
unrelated to opinions about the performance of the police and criminal courts.
Canadian-born respondents, as well as immigrants who have lived in Canada for a
long period of time, are more likely to perceive both police and court discrimination
than newcomers.
Week 6 - Immigration and crime
Monday, September 10, 2018
1:45 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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Time to work on paper
Take ten minutes to (re)formulate thesis statement/argument.
Begin to draft outline of your papers.
Trump on Immigration and Crime
Say that they're more likely to be criminal so more people agree and dislike them
Open Canada
Openness vs closeness
Open borders vs closed borders
Canada is a model for openness
The Canadian Story
Immigration has been central to nation building and social development in Canada.
Unfortunately, immigrant lives in Canada often feature struggle, discrimination, and a
variety of vexing social problems.
The Canadian Story
While the focus of this chapter is on immigration and immigrants, it is important to
recognize at the outset the place and contributions of substantial numbers of non-
immigrants to Canada.
The colonization of North America by France and Britain in the seventeenth century
brought the first immigrants to Canada.
The Canadian Story
Since 1867, the Canadian government’s decisions concerning who should be allowed
into the country have been guided by two questions: ‘Are certain immigrants better
suited than others for certain kinds of jobs?’ and ‘Are certain immigrants better
candidates than others for participation in Canadian social and political life?’
The Canadian Story
Fueled by a dramatic growth in the numbers of non-European countries the ethno-
racial diversity absorbed by Canada during a relatively short period of time has raised
a number of challenges.
First and foremost among these is how to both identify and mitigate the impact of the
various structural and systemic barriers that create inequality in Canadian society for
immigrants, especially for racial and visible minorities.
Immigrants as Offenders
The media plays an important role in fostering a perceived relationship between
immigration and crime.
Anti-immigrant sentiments are most apparent in the treatment of racial and visible
minorities, leading some to argue that the immigrant-crime connection is the
outcome of a media-driven moral panic.
Wortley (2009) traces the recent history of this phenomenon in Canada back to 1994
when a black male assailant murdered a white female in Toronto. The “Just Desserts”
shooting.
Immigrants as Offenders
According to national public opinion data, 21 per cent of Canadian citizens surveyed in
1995 either agreed or strongly agreed that immigrants increase crime; that number
grew to 27 per cent of those surveyed in 2003.
This finding supports Jiwani’s assertion that immigrants in Canada are perceived to be
‘a social threat in terms of their proclivity to crime’.
A finding that is strengthened by the fact that race/immigrant specific crime data are
not collected by the criminal justice system, making it difficult to arrive at such a
conclusion with any degree of confidence.
Immigrants as Offenders
Opium Act – 1908.
Wortley and Tanner’s (2006, p. 34) research on urban youth gangs found that
immigration status was not related to criminal gang membership.
Research conducted by Hagan et al. (2008) found that both first- and second-
generation immigrant youth were less likely to engage in deviant behaviour than
those born in Canada.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
Over the past 30 years, a series of events has propelled Muslims onto the
international political and media scene:
These events have led to the dissemination of four main negative stereotypes of Islam
in Western public opinion and their manipulation by politicians, intellectuals,
journalists, and pressure groups:
(1) Islam is an intolerant and even dangerous religion;
(2) democracy and modernity are impossible in Islamic societies;
(3) women’s oppression is inevitable in Islam; and
(4) immigrant Muslims are archaically religious and beset by the conflicts
of their societies of origin
Immigrants as National Security Threats
In the wake of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack, it was predicted that attitudes
toward immigration in the United States and Canada would likely become less
favourable owing to the economic and social consequences of the attack.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
Over the past 10 years or so, annual surveys have shown that Canadians ‘do not feel
comfortable’ with people associated with Islamic culture.
In the fall of 2001 (IPSOS-Reid), 82 per cent of Canadians feared that Arabs and
Muslims would become the target of prejudice.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
No Canadian law denies Muslims their rights. Nonetheless, Muslims are vulnerable to
criminalization under the laws of Parliament.
In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Parliament passed the Anti-Terrorism Act (Bill
C-36), the Foreign Missions and International Organizations Act (Bill C-35), and the
Public Safety Act (Bill C-55, which includes provisions for improving airport and
aviation security).
About 100 Muslims suspected of terrorist activity have been arrested since 2001.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
Some early twentieth-century American academics and bureaucrats argued that
immigrants were biologically inferior in comparison to non-immigrants and believed
that crime was just one of the negative consequences that came with immigration
(Martinez and Lee, 2000: 488).
More contemporary theories tend to focus on social-psychological and sociological
variables to explain immigration and crime.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
According to Wortley (2009), these explanations can be organized into four
frameworks:
the importation model,
the strain model,
the cultural conflict model,
and the bias model.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The importation model contends that some individuals decide to migrate from one
country to another with the clear intention to commit crime within the receiving
nation.
This rational actor model has been advanced to explain criminal activity linked to
international organized-crime syndicates, criminal gangs, and terrorist networks and
organizations.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The strain model posits that crime committed by immigrants is a result of their being
marginalized and excluded from the various mainstream opportunities and resources
available in the receiving nation.
Discrimination in employment, housing, education, and a host of other arenas leads to
deprivation, which in turn pushes people into crime.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The cultural conflict model highlights the problems that can emerge when immigrants
engage in behaviour that is culturally and legally acceptable in their country of origin
but is illegal in their newly adopted homeland. In such situations, immigrants may be
unaware of the receiving nation’s prohibition of the behaviour, or they may be unable
to resist the cultural pressure to continue the behaviour that emanates from the
larger immigrant group itself.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The bias model contends that this over-representation reflects discrimination within
the criminal justice system, rather than from the increased participation in crime
among immigrants.
Compared to the native born population, immigrants are more likely to come under
intense police surveillance (racial profiling), more likely to be arrested by the police,
and more likely to be convicted and given tough sentences by the criminal courts
The Immigrant Paradox
In an influential 2006 opinion editorial published in the New York Times, Robert J.
Sampson, a professor of sociology at Harvard University, argued that increased
immigration to the United States was a major factor associated with the crime drop of
the 1990s.
According to Sampson, ‘immigrants appear in general to be less violent than people
born in America, particularly when they live in neighborhoods with high numbers of
other immigrants’ (Sampson, 2006, p. A27).
The Immigrant Paradox
Indeed, recent research on immigrants in the US, however, casts doubt on the
universality of immigrants as sources of crime and violence leading to what can be
termed the immigrant paradox, where immigrants are more socially disadvantaged
yet also less likely to commit crime and evince other forms of social pathology.
The immigrant paradox finding has emerged from studies using various data sources,
research designs, and geographic areas.
Immigrants Views of the Canadian Criminal Justice System
Research by Scot Wortley and Akwasi Owusu-Bempah
Wortley, S., & Owusu-Bempah, A. (2009). Unequal before the law: Immigrant
and racial minority perceptions of the Canadian criminal justice system. Journal
of International Migration and Integration, 10(4), 447-473.and Owusu-Bempah
Research Questions
Do immigrants evaluate the performance of the police and criminal courts differently
than native-born Canadians?
1.
Do immigrants perceive more or less bias in the justice system than native-born
Canadians and if so, do they vary by time spent in Canada?
2.
Controlling for immigration status, do racial minorities evaluate the performance of
the police and courts differently than whites?
3.
Controlling for immigration status, do racial minorities perceive more bias in the
criminal justice system than whites?
4.
Have perceptions of racial bias in the justice system changed over the past 14 years?5.
The Data
2007 survey of 1,522 Toronto adults (18 years of age or older).
Stratified sample designed to produce a representative sample of black, Chinese and
white residents (over 500 respondents from each group).
Response rate=73%
Mean Scores on Police and Court Evaluation Scales, by Race
Mean Scores on Police and Court Evaluation Scales, by Length of Time in Canada
Mean Scores on Police and Court Bias Scales,by Race
Mean Scores on Police and Court Bias Scales,by Length of Time in Canada
Changes in Perceptions 1994 -2007
Changes in Perceptions 1994 -2007
Percent of respondents who believe that the police treat Chinese people worse than
white people
Discussion
In general, respondents from all racial backgrounds have favourable evaluations of the
police.
In general, both black and Chinese respondents perceive more discrimination or bias
in policing than white people.
Regardless of race, people tend to evaluate the performance of the police more highly
than the performance of the criminal courts.
Discussion Cont.
Overall, after controlling for race and other relevant variables, immigration status is
unrelated to opinions about the performance of the police and criminal courts.
Canadian-born respondents, as well as immigrants who have lived in Canada for a
long period of time, are more likely to perceive both police and court discrimination
than newcomers.
Week 6 - Immigration and crime
Monday, September 10, 2018 1:45 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Time to work on paper
Take ten minutes to (re)formulate thesis statement/argument.
Begin to draft outline of your papers.
Trump on Immigration and Crime
Say that they're more likely to be criminal so more people agree and dislike them
Open Canada
Openness vs closeness
Open borders vs closed borders
Canada is a model for openness
The Canadian Story
Immigration has been central to nation building and social development in Canada.
Unfortunately, immigrant lives in Canada often feature struggle, discrimination, and a
variety of vexing social problems.
The Canadian Story
While the focus of this chapter is on immigration and immigrants, it is important to
recognize at the outset the place and contributions of substantial numbers of non-
immigrants to Canada.
The colonization of North America by France and Britain in the seventeenth century
brought the first immigrants to Canada.
The Canadian Story
Since 1867, the Canadian government’s decisions concerning who should be allowed
into the country have been guided by two questions: ‘Are certain immigrants better
suited than others for certain kinds of jobs?’ and ‘Are certain immigrants better
candidates than others for participation in Canadian social and political life?’
The Canadian Story
Fueled by a dramatic growth in the numbers of non-European countries the ethno-
racial diversity absorbed by Canada during a relatively short period of time has raised
a number of challenges.
First and foremost among these is how to both identify and mitigate the impact of the
various structural and systemic barriers that create inequality in Canadian society for
immigrants, especially for racial and visible minorities.
Immigrants as Offenders
The media plays an important role in fostering a perceived relationship between
immigration and crime.
Anti-immigrant sentiments are most apparent in the treatment of racial and visible
minorities, leading some to argue that the immigrant-crime connection is the
outcome of a media-driven moral panic.
Wortley (2009) traces the recent history of this phenomenon in Canada back to 1994
when a black male assailant murdered a white female in Toronto. The “Just Desserts”
shooting.
Immigrants as Offenders
According to national public opinion data, 21 per cent of Canadian citizens surveyed in
1995 either agreed or strongly agreed that immigrants increase crime; that number
grew to 27 per cent of those surveyed in 2003.
This finding supports Jiwani’s assertion that immigrants in Canada are perceived to be
‘a social threat in terms of their proclivity to crime’.
A finding that is strengthened by the fact that race/immigrant specific crime data are
not collected by the criminal justice system, making it difficult to arrive at such a
conclusion with any degree of confidence.
Immigrants as Offenders
Opium Act – 1908.
Wortley and Tanner’s (2006, p. 34) research on urban youth gangs found that
immigration status was not related to criminal gang membership.
Research conducted by Hagan et al. (2008) found that both first- and second-
generation immigrant youth were less likely to engage in deviant behaviour than
those born in Canada.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
Over the past 30 years, a series of events has propelled Muslims onto the
international political and media scene:
These events have led to the dissemination of four main negative stereotypes of Islam
in Western public opinion and their manipulation by politicians, intellectuals,
journalists, and pressure groups:
(1) Islam is an intolerant and even dangerous religion;
(2) democracy and modernity are impossible in Islamic societies;
(3) women’s oppression is inevitable in Islam; and
(4) immigrant Muslims are archaically religious and beset by the conflicts
of their societies of origin
Immigrants as National Security Threats
In the wake of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack, it was predicted that attitudes
toward immigration in the United States and Canada would likely become less
favourable owing to the economic and social consequences of the attack.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
Over the past 10 years or so, annual surveys have shown that Canadians ‘do not feel
comfortable’ with people associated with Islamic culture.
In the fall of 2001 (IPSOS-Reid), 82 per cent of Canadians feared that Arabs and
Muslims would become the target of prejudice.
Immigrants as National Security Threats
No Canadian law denies Muslims their rights. Nonetheless, Muslims are vulnerable to
criminalization under the laws of Parliament.
In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Parliament passed the Anti-Terrorism Act (Bill
C-36), the Foreign Missions and International Organizations Act (Bill C-35), and the
Public Safety Act (Bill C-55, which includes provisions for improving airport and
aviation security).
About 100 Muslims suspected of terrorist activity have been arrested since 2001.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
Some early twentieth-century American academics and bureaucrats argued that
immigrants were biologically inferior in comparison to non-immigrants and believed
that crime was just one of the negative consequences that came with immigration
(Martinez and Lee, 2000: 488).
More contemporary theories tend to focus on social-psychological and sociological
variables to explain immigration and crime.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
According to Wortley (2009), these explanations can be organized into four
frameworks:
the importation model,
the strain model,
the cultural conflict model,
and the bias model.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The importation model contends that some individuals decide to migrate from one
country to another with the clear intention to commit crime within the receiving
nation.
This rational actor model has been advanced to explain criminal activity linked to
international organized-crime syndicates, criminal gangs, and terrorist networks and
organizations.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The strain model posits that crime committed by immigrants is a result of their being
marginalized and excluded from the various mainstream opportunities and resources
available in the receiving nation.
Discrimination in employment, housing, education, and a host of other arenas leads to
deprivation, which in turn pushes people into crime.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The cultural conflict model highlights the problems that can emerge when immigrants
engage in behaviour that is culturally and legally acceptable in their country of origin
but is illegal in their newly adopted homeland. In such situations, immigrants may be
unaware of the receiving nation’s prohibition of the behaviour, or they may be unable
to resist the cultural pressure to continue the behaviour that emanates from the
larger immigrant group itself.
Theoretical Explanations of Immigrant Criminality
The bias model contends that this over-representation reflects discrimination within
the criminal justice system, rather than from the increased participation in crime
among immigrants.
Compared to the native born population, immigrants are more likely to come under
intense police surveillance (racial profiling), more likely to be arrested by the police,
and more likely to be convicted and given tough sentences by the criminal courts
The Immigrant Paradox
In an influential 2006 opinion editorial published in the New York Times, Robert J.
Sampson, a professor of sociology at Harvard University, argued that increased
immigration to the United States was a major factor associated with the crime drop of
the 1990s.
According to Sampson, ‘immigrants appear in general to be less violent than people
born in America, particularly when they live in neighborhoods with high numbers of
other immigrants’ (Sampson, 2006, p. A27).
The Immigrant Paradox
Indeed, recent research on immigrants in the US, however, casts doubt on the
universality of immigrants as sources of crime and violence leading to what can be
termed the immigrant paradox, where immigrants are more socially disadvantaged
yet also less likely to commit crime and evince other forms of social pathology.
The immigrant paradox finding has emerged from studies using various data sources,
research designs, and geographic areas.
Immigrants Views of the Canadian Criminal Justice System
Research by Scot Wortley and Akwasi Owusu-Bempah
Wortley, S., & Owusu-Bempah, A. (2009). Unequal before the law: Immigrant
and racial minority perceptions of the Canadian criminal justice system. Journal
of International Migration and Integration, 10(4), 447-473.and Owusu-Bempah
Research Questions
Do immigrants evaluate the performance of the police and criminal courts differently
than native-born Canadians?
1.
Do immigrants perceive more or less bias in the justice system than native-born
Canadians and if so, do they vary by time spent in Canada?
2.
Controlling for immigration status, do racial minorities evaluate the performance of
the police and courts differently than whites?
3.
Controlling for immigration status, do racial minorities perceive more bias in the
criminal justice system than whites?
4.
Have perceptions of racial bias in the justice system changed over the past 14 years?5.
The Data
2007 survey of 1,522 Toronto adults (18 years of age or older).
Stratified sample designed to produce a representative sample of black, Chinese and
white residents (over 500 respondents from each group).
Response rate=73%
Mean Scores on Police and Court Evaluation Scales, by Race
Mean Scores on Police and Court Evaluation Scales, by Length of Time in Canada
Mean Scores on Police and Court Bias Scales,by Race
Mean Scores on Police and Court Bias Scales,by Length of Time in Canada
Changes in Perceptions 1994 -2007
Changes in Perceptions 1994 -2007
Percent of respondents who believe that the police treat Chinese people worse than
white people
Discussion
In general, respondents from all racial backgrounds have favourable evaluations of the
police.
In general, both black and Chinese respondents perceive more discrimination or bias
in policing than white people.
Regardless of race, people tend to evaluate the performance of the police more highly
than the performance of the criminal courts.
Discussion Cont.
Overall, after controlling for race and other relevant variables, immigration status is
unrelated to opinions about the performance of the police and criminal courts.
Canadian-born respondents, as well as immigrants who have lived in Canada for a
long period of time, are more likely to perceive both police and court discrimination
than newcomers.
Week 6 - Immigration and crime
Monday, September 10, 2018 1:45 PM
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