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Lecture 13

SOC100 Lecture 13.docx

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Jayne Baker

March 7, 2013 Gender Sex and Gender - Sex: “The biological differences that distinguish males from females.” (Conley 2013: 283)  Hormones - Gender: “A social position, the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories.” (Conley 2013: 283)  Socially structured  Masculinity and femininity  Social definition of male and female - Gender is social and Sex is biological The Social Construction of Gender - Social construct: an idea or concept that has emerged from society - Gender has come from a social construction (emerged form society) - Gender is an idea/concept that is a product of society - One of the ways of seeing gender as a social construction is to recognize how it has changed over time. Example of How Gender Has Changed - Cheerleading  Used to be male-dominated  Considered as masculine as football  Women excluded from cheerleading  It shifted when many men who were in cheerleading were called to go to war.  Women were required to fill many different spots when the men left; including cheerleading  When men came back from war, there was a real battle over cheerleading.  Some schools even banned female cheerleaders  “Female cheerleaders often become too masculine for their own good”  Cheerleading = Masculine (LOL)  Never resolved and then men were called for WWII.  Women really took over cheerleading.  It changed everyone‟s perception of what made a cheerleader a cheerleader. March 7, 2013  Women stereotyped as „cute‟ and not valiant (not very representative of their colleges)  Cheerleading became more generalized  The ideal cheerleader was no longer a strong athlete with leadership skills  Now, it‟s about happy, supportive, cheerful person.  By 1960s, men replaced by women  Cutesy chants, uniforms, smiles, no gymnastics, no challenging routines or stunts going on.  Now, cheerleaders are quite athletic, however, cheerleading is not very masculine (there are some male cheerleaders).  While cheerleading can be quite athletic (more stunts and routines), it‟s also highly sexualized (routines and uniforms) - Therefore, changes in views of masculinity and femininity. - Notions of gender appropriate roles that we take for granted these days are a product from the society we are in. They were probably different a long time ago. Learning Gender - Gender socialization happens through interaction - Sociologists look at socialization and interaction  What it means to be male or female. - We learn from our primary socializing agents (family) and our secondary socializing agents (school). - We also learn from factors around us (toys, tv shows, movies, etc.) - These all tell us what is appropriate (what is male and what is female- roles) - Ex: Handbooks on how to be boys and girls.  Ideas seen that girls are more interested in heterosexual relationships.  Males have better/more things/interests to do  Intimacy more important to girls rather than boys  These kinds of things influence how we learn gender  These ideas are everywhere - The more we see these ideas, the more
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