March 26, 2013
Media and Mass Media
Media: “Any formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate
information.” (Conley 2013: 94)
Mass: to large audiences
First form of mass media…?
Larger audiences receive information
First form of mass media was books
The printing press happened in the 15 century and it opened
more opportunities for mass media.
Different audiences, messages, etc.
- The effect of media is demonstrated in this table
- There are intended media effects and some are long term media
effects. March 26, 2013
- Short term intended media effects include commercials, which can
make kids or people want something.
Fairly immediate effect
There‟s an intent to cause something.
Sociologists are interested in terms of how this produce
consumers and how this contributes to economization
- Long term intended consequences
Reinforced over and over again through repeated exposure
No smoking campaigns, ideas or views, etc.
Long term intended media effects: intend to promote national
pride (Canadian commercials that demonstrates country‟s
- Long term unintended consequences
Sexist, racist imagery in the media
We watch things now that were deemed inappropriate in
- Short term unintended media effects
Doom: First first-person-shooter game to exist
Came out in 1993
First-person shooter video game and violence/aggression
1993, a lot of concern about the potential effect of this kind of
When a string of school shootings happened in the 90s,
everyone blamed Doom.
During 90s, more and more of children‟s lives included video
Many families therefore had consoles and video games in
Using video games is the scapegoat or explanation for violence
Video games and school shootings
What has sociological research found?
Correlation versus Causation
Correlation: Relationship between two or more things,
however, they don‟t cause something to happen with the
other. March 26, 2013