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soc 100 ch 10.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga

Chapter 10 Social StratificationWhat is Social Stratification A society that ranks people by hierarchyBased on four principles 1Trait of societynot simplya reflectionof individual differenceclass and the number of opportunities one has is basedlargely on what class you are born into2Social Stratification carries on from one generation to another certainly there is room forsocial mobility3Social Stratification is universal but variable inequality is everywhere but exactly what is unequal and how it is unequal is different from society to society 4Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well Caste and Class System Sociologists distinguishbetween closed and open systemsCaste systemclosed Class systemopenCaste SystemSocial stratification based onbirth or ascription Allows for no or little social mobility Ex India Four major castesVarna Brahman Kshatriya Vaishyaand Shudra Each cast performs a type of workMarry within castsendogamous and is usually arranged when still childrenPeople are supposed to be hanging out with people of their own caste Build on cultural beliefsCaste systems are typical of agrarian culturesand they are schooled into wanting to do the same jobs astheir parents People living in industrial areas however have more choice than agrarian societies Class SystemSocial stratification based on birth and individual achievementPeople inter marryMore choice over life as well as marriage partner MeritocracySocial stratification based on how well someone does and how much effort they put into theirjobIn such a societythere is constant social mobility as it depends on a persons later workCaste systems define merit as how dutiful someone is to their workit wastes human potentialbut areorganized Class systems keep both the order of the caste systempassing wealth on from one generation to another and some of the Merit system Pure Meritocracy would weaken family ties Status consistency The degree of someones consistency In someones social standingranking high or low on all threedimensions of social class Webers class status and powerCaste systemhigh Status consistencyno social mobilityClass System low status consistency Classes are much harder to define than castesCaste and Class The United KingdomMix of meritocracy and Caste
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