SOC100H5 Lecture Notes - Groupthink

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Chapter 7: Groups & Organizations 29/09/2010 16:29:00
Chapter Overview: This chapter analyzes social groups, highlighting the
differences between them.
What are social groups?
Social Groups - Two or more people who identify and interact with one another
Primary Groups - A small social group whose members share personal and
lasting relationships
Cooley called this type of group primary because they:
*Are the first groups we experience
*Shape attitudes, behaviour, and identity
*Provide economic and other assistance
*Are bound by emotion and loyalty
Secondary Groups - Large and impersonal groups whose members pursue a
specific goal or activity
Characteristics:
*Weak emotional ties
*Little personal knowledge of each other
*People look to one another strategically (for what they can do for one another)
*Part of a secondary group could turn itself into a primary group
Group Leadership - *Important element of group dynamics is LEADERSHIP
*Small circles of friends may have no leader at all
*However large secondary groups place leaders in a formal chain of command
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Primary Group Secondary Group
Quality of RelationshipsPersonal Orientation Goal Orientation
Duration of RelationshipsUsually Long Term Variable, short term
Breadth of RelationshipsInvolves activitiesNarrow, few activities
Perception of RelationshipsEnd in themselvesMeans to an end
ExamplesFamily, circle of friendsCo-Workers, political
organizations
There are 2 types of Leadership:
Instrumental Leadership - *focuses on the completion of tasks
*Leaders make plans, give orders, and get things done
Secondary ties of respect
Expressive Leadership - *focuses on the groups well-being
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*Leaders raise group morale and minimize tension and conflict among members
*Primary ties of affection
There are 3 kinds of Leadership Styles:
1. *Authoritarian: Makes decisions; demands that group members obey
*Appreciated in a crisis
2. *Democratic: Member involvement in decision making
*Draw on creative ideas of members
3. *Laissez-faire: Leader mainly lets group function on its own
Group Conformity - Groups influence the behaviour
of their members by promoting conformity
Milgrams research
The group of kids 7 girls one boy killed another girl and dumped her in a lake.
*Compared peoples compulsion to obey authority figures vs. conformity to group
lead
*Groups are more likely to influence peoples behaviour
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Document Summary

This chapter analyzes social groups, highlighting the differences between them. Two or more people who identify and interact with one another. A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. Cooley called this type of group primary because they: Large and impersonal groups whose members pursue a specific goal or activity. *people look to one another strategically (for what they can do for one another) *part of a secondary group could turn itself into a primary group. *important element of group dynamics is leadership. *small circles of friends may have no leader at all. *however large secondary groups place leaders in a formal chain of command. *leaders make plans, give orders, and get things done. *leaders raise group morale and minimize tension and conflict among members. There are 3 kinds of leadership styles: *authoritarian: makes decisions; demands that group members obey. *appreciated in a crisis: *democratic: member involvement in decision making.

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