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Chapter 19 - Religion - pp.457-477

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Suzanne Casimiro

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Deviance 08/10/2010 12:48:00
Chapter Overview: This chapter illustrates how society encourages both
conformity and deviance. Providing an introduction to crime and the criminal justice
Deviance: standing out by not conforming to what is expected or normal, it is a
reflection of both individual choice and the operation of norms within our society.
Social Control: attempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behaviour
Crime: the violation(s) of the criminal law/justice system
Criminal Justice System: a response by the police, courts, and prison officials to
alleged violations of the law
Theories of Deviance
Biological Theories
Focus on individual abnormality
Human behaviour is explained as a result of biological instinct
Criminal behaviour is linked to body type and genetic
Psychological Theories
Focuses on individual abnormality
Deviance is the result of unsuccessful socialization
**Biological and Psychological theories provide a limited understanding of crime and
deviance because most violations that happen are done by normal people.

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Sociological Theories
View behaviour, deviance and conformity as a product of society
Deviance varies from place to place according to cultural norms
People become more deviant as others define them as being deviant
Who and What society defines as DEVIANT also points out who has and does not
have power
Theoretical Analysis of Deviance
Structural-Functional Analysis
Deviance is an important part of social organization
Durkheims Basic Insight
Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries
Responding to deviancebrings people together
Deviance encourages social change
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
This theory explains how people define deviance in everyday situations
Deviance is only what people label it as
Deviance is a variable and therefore, an act or a person may or may not be labeled
as deviant
Primary and Secondary Deviance: some violations are minimal (primary)
Oberserved/Observable norm violations that provoke slight reaction from others and
have little effect on a persons self-concept
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