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Suzanne Casimiro

SOC100 September 30 th Groups and Organizations Social Groups - everyone wants a sense of belonging in our society - two or more people who identify and interact with one another - 2 types of social groups: o primary o secondary 1. Primary - being your first initial social group – family – shares many activities on a daily basis - a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships - Cooley called this type of group primary because they: o are the first groups we experience o shape attitudes, behaviour, and identity o provide economic and other assistance o are bound by emotion and loyalty 2. Secondary Groups - large and impersonal groups whose members pursue a specific goal or activity o ex. university faulty association – Red Cross etc. - characteristics: o weak emotional ties o normally have short-term goals – common goal (ex. Terry Fox marathon) o little personal knowledge of each other – not close connections w. each other o people look to one another strategically (for what they can do for one another) o part of a secondary group could turn itself into a primary group Group Leadership - important element of group dynamics - small circles of friends may have no leader at all o primary have no leaders – unless it’s the breadwinner in a family - however large secondary groups place leaders in a formal chain of command o the president, treasurer, social organizer – think of UCS 2 Leadership Roles 1. instrumental: focuses on the completion of tasks o leaders make plans, give orders, and get things done o secondary ties of respect 2. expressive: focuses on the group’s well-being o leaders raise group morale and minimize tension and conflict among members o primary ties of affection o morale and helping one another 3 Leadership Types 1. authoritarian: makes decisions, demands that group members obey o appreciated in a crisis 2. democratic: member involvement in decision making o draw on creative ides of members o more expressive – decision making process – voting 3. laissez-faire: leader mainly lets group function on its own Group Conformity - everyone wants to belong - groups influence the behaviour of their member by promoting conformity - Milgrim’s research on obedience: o compared people’s compulsion to obey authority figures vs. conformity to group lead o groups are more likely to influence people’s behaviour than being alone Reference Groups - social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions - Stouffer’s research: o soldiers misperceived their own chances of being promoted o we do not make judgements about ourselves in isolation, nor do we compare ourselves with just anyone Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender - Peter Blau (1918-2002) o large groups turn inward  members have relationships among themselves – only within that group  may promote separtism  tend to be closed off in terms of w
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