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SOC100H5 (957)

Global Stratification

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Suzanne Casimiro

SOC100 October 21 st Global Stratification Overview - patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole - Canadians with the income below the government’s poverty line (LICO) live far better than the majority of people in the world - poverty is a reality in Canada, but the greatest social inequality is not within nations but between them New Terminology - high-income countries: richest 50 nations - middle-income countries: 80 nations - low-income countries: 60 nations with lowest productivity and most severe property High-Income Countries - in 2008, 22% of the world’s people - enjoy 80% of the world’s income - income range: $10,000 to $41,000 - production is capital intensive - at forefront of Information Revolution - control world’s financial markets - ex. Canada, U.S, Western Europe, Australia, Japan, S. Korea, Israel, etc. Middle-Income Countries - income range: $2,500 to $10,000 - 55% of people live in or near cities; the rest live in rural areas with limited services - 72 of the world’s countries - limited industrialization - some former socialist countries; Belarus, Ukraine, Romania - ex. Uruguay, Bulgaria, Thailand, Lesotho Low-Income Countries - income below $2,500 per capita annually - 12% of the world’s people, 56 countries - one-third live in cities - mostly agrarian societies with some industry but limited technology - hunger and disease are rampant - ex. South Asian countries (Bangladesh, Pakistan) and Sub-Saharan African countries (Ethiopia, Chad, Congo) Relative vs. Absolute Poverty - relative poverty o people lack resources that others take for granted o this sort of poverty exists in every society - absolute poverty o a lack of resources that is life threatening o while some may exist in Canada, in low-income counties one-third are in desperate need Poverty and Children - 100 million children in poor countries are forced to work the streets (ex. bed, steal sell sex) - homeless girls become pregnant and have children of their own - half of all street children are in Latin America and live in makeshift huts, under bridges, or in alleyways Poverty and Women - in all societies, a woman’s work is undervalued and underpaid or entirely overlooked - greater disadvantages for women in poor societies - 70% of the world’s 1 billion people living near absolute poverty are women - most women in poor countries receive little or no reproductive health care Slavery 1. chattel slavery: one person owns another 2. child slavery: poor families leave children to the streets 3. debt bondage: employers hold workers to pay for their debts - servile forms of marriage: married against their will; slaves to husband or forced into prostitution - human trafficking: the moving of men, women, and children to perform forced labour brings big profits to organized crime Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysis Modernization - explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations Historical Perspective - entire world poor until a few centuries ago - industrial technology improved living standards - high-
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