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SOC100H5 Lecture Notes - Social Stratification, Intersection Theory, Glass Ceiling

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Suzanne Casimiro

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October 26th
Gender Stratification
-gender is more than differences in how women and men are expected to behave
-gender is also an important dimension of social stratification
-where men have traditionally been and are placed in positions of power over women to
this day
Gender and Inequality
-gender: personal traits and social positions that members pf a society attach to being
male or female
-gender stratification: the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege
between men and women
Male/Female Differences
-we must be careful not to think of social differences in biological terms
-there are differences in physical abilities, but in athletics the gap is smaller today
-differences in abilities reflect both biology and socialization
-also, women have a greater life span
-no difference in overall intelligence between males and females
Gender in a Global Perspective
-Israeli Kibbutz: gender is considered irrelevant
-Margaret Meads research: culture is the key to gender differences
-George Murdocks research: in pre-industrialized societies, hunting and warfare
belonged to men and domestic duties to women; but beyond this pattern he found much
-gender is too variable across cultures to be a simple expression of biology
Patriarchy and Sexism
-patriarchy: a form of social organization in which males dominate females
-matriarchy: a form of social organization in which females dominate males (has never
been documented)
-sexism: belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
Gender and Socialization
-patriarchy exists through the learning of gender roles: attitudes and activities that a
society links to each sex
-gender and the family: treats men as independent and women as cooperative
-gender and the peer group: young children have single-sex play groups
-gender and schooling: textbooks now portray people in balanced ways
oin University, women are in humanities and social sciences, and men are in math
and natural sciences
-gender and the mass media: men play more interesting characters than women
oads traditionally show women in domestic roles and men in occupational roles
Gender and Social Stratification
Working women and men
-in 1901, women made up 13% of the workforce
-in 2001, 56% of women were in labour force
-women are moving into business, finance, sciences, and medicine
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