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SOC100H5 (957)

Gender Statification

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Suzanne Casimiro

SOC100 October 26 th Gender Stratification - gender is more than differences in how women and men are expected to behave - gender is also an important dimension of social stratification - where men have traditionally been and are placed in positions of power over women to this day Gender and Inequality - gender: personal traits and social positions that members pf a society attach to being male or female - gender stratification: the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women Male/Female Differences - we must be careful not to think of social differences in biological terms - there are differences in physical abilities, but in athletics the gap is smaller today - differences in abilities reflect both biology and socialization - also, women have a greater life span - no difference in overall intelligence between males and females Gender in a Global Perspective - Israeli Kibbutz: gender is considered irrelevant - Margaret Mead’s research: culture is the key to gender differences - George Murdock’s research: in pre-industrialized societies, hunting and warfare belonged to men and domestic duties to women; but beyond this pattern he found much variety - gender is too variable across cultures to be a simple expression of biology Patriarchy and Sexism - patriarchy: a form of social organization in which males dominate females - matriarchy: a form of social organization in which females dominate males (has never been documented) - sexism: belief that one sex is innately superior to the other Gender and Socialization - patriarchy exists through the learning of gender roles: attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex - gender and the family: treats men as independent and women as cooperative - gender and the peer group: young children have single-sex play groups - gender and schooling: textbooks now portray people in balanced ways o in University, women are in humanities and social sciences, and men are in math and natural sciences - gender and the mass media: men play more interesting characters than women o ads traditionally show women in domestic roles and men in occupational roles Gender and Social Stratification Working women and men - in 1901, women made up 13% of the workforce - in 2001, 56% of women were in labour force - women are moving into business, finance, sciences, and medicine - however, women still dominate sales work and service occupations - men dominate senior positions and trades Gender, Occupation, and Income - women earn 71 cents for ever $1 men earn due to: o kinds of jobs: low-income, service o being out of the labour force with children o gatekeepers keep women out of certain jobs ex. truck driver o employers pay women less o women to not get promoted (glass ceiling) o housework: women’s second shift  women work full-time and do most of the housework and childcare  men to more today, but not an equal share Gender and Education - in the past, schooling was considered necessary for men, who worked outside the home - women now earn more than half of under and post graduate degrees o men lead in engineering and the hard sciences o women lead in the health professions, education, fine arts, natural sciences, humanities, and social sciences Gender and Politics - today, women are involved in all levels of politics in Canada - the largest proportion of women politicians is found in the municipal area - women are underrepresented in provincial and federal politics - women hold 22.1% of seats in the Canadian Parliament Are Women a Minority? - minority: distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates - minority women: intersection theory: studies interplay of race, class, and gender resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage o Aboriginal women earn less than other Canadians Violence Against Women - family violence: though both men and women are victims, women suffer more serious injuries - sexual harassment: comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome - pornography: women focus on it as a power issue, another means of controlling women o some women endorse the rights of
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