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Lecture 3

Week 3 - September 26.docx

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Nicole Myers

SOC305 Sociological Explanations September 26, 2012 Merton 1938 Says that it is not about biology He says that deviant conduct should be viewed as when there is a disjuncture between the goals and the means And that when there is a space between these people will use the least resistance when trying to obtain these goals And he believes that this has created a strain, a strain to obtain the middle class goals o Of which has 2 elements Anti-social behavior is the consequence Difference between the means and the goals the consequence that happens results in different anti socials behaviours, pathological behaviours, or revolutionary activities Suggested then that our class structures have become more mobilified, and as a result he believes that this is the cause of deviant behavior o People are blocked from achieving things, there is a lack of opportunity However, not just a lack of opportunity or about the goals, the problem is that when we get to a society that has accepted that there is only a certain way of achieving that success it will lead to deviant behavior Restricting his analysis to lower class crime, particularly lower class white boys He makes some broader, political statements on a wider scale no way of understanding how one goes about achieving those goal-so while everyone has the same goals, there is different thoughts on achieving these goals Mertons typology + = positive means/acceptance, - = negative, not accepted Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism rejection of culturally defined goal, and any means of getting there Rebellion a rejection of the culturally defined goals and the means of getting there, but it is replaced by ones own Its not poverty and disadvantage that leads to limited opportunities that produce the social strain, but rather its the universal definition for success, and this happens across different people and that is what produces crime Hieschi Bond theory Looked at what are the causes of delinquency Attachment how attached you feel to something Commitment Involvement how repeatedly one is involved in a particular act Belief General theory of crime Trying to bridge the individual and the social to see if theres something there that they can find Considered one of the control theories (talking about self-control) Set up a discussion about criminality and self-control o Criminality - They argue that ppl have a different extent to which their compelled to commit crimes o Self-control use it to apply to a # of circumstances, they believe that everyone has self-control but everyone has different levels of self-control When they talked about ppl having low self-control they talk about o Impulsivity o Adventure seeking o Self centredness o Minimal tolerance for frustration o Lack of diligence o Inability to deter gratification Argues that these traits can be identified prior to criminality They come as a collective in ppl Argue that the self-control that one has is stable and not going to change over the time of ones life. E.g. if you are an impulsive child, youre going to be an impulsive teenage and adult They talk about crime being the least consequence of having low self-control They argue that self-control is not a product of learning (you dont learn self-control) o Also not the result of pressure. (peer pressure) o Also not the product of a defect (nothing wrong with you to produce it) They argue that the dimensions of self-control are the factors that affect the way one looks at their calculations. In the sense that one may not even have any sense of looking at the consequences of their actions 2 sources of variation o Variation among children o Caretakers abilities e.g. parents responding to wrongful behavior in the household, i.e. not specifying a time for the child to be home, not saying anything when the sister hits the brother etc. Parents have the responsibility to correct that behavior Maybe be taught to improve their impulsivity, not changing the self- control but learning a way to control it Issues? o Morality? o Measure? Dont come up with any measures of self-control no way of measuring how much self control one has Underlying variable for all of our actions They view self-control as being stable Harm reduction theory Crime is inevitable, its going to happen Therefore all one can do is put measures in place to reduce the crime i.e. sex workers are still going to work in that field, therefore lets give them things to minimize the harm o the same occurs with drug dealers things = giving them clean needles Insight organization= safe injection site in Vancouver, bring in your own drugs and they give them clean pipes and needles, they also have on sight nurses and ppl there to take them to rehab if they have determined that they're ready o Talk about wanting to open a site in Toronto and Montreal They are doing this to minimize HIV and other diseases b/c a lot of drug users are not ready to go to rehab. o The same can be said about sex workers, legalizing brothe
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