Class Notes (838,386)
Canada (510,872)
Sociology (4,081)
SOC205H5 (139)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

3 Pages
83 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC205H5
Professor
Zachary Levinsky
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 2 January 16, 2013 Classical theory and Beccaria  Criminology (Schissel)- consensus research on who the criminal is , policy/governmental research  Executing a perfect justice system or improving it from what it is now and get people to be law abiding (discourage people from going against the law)  Criminology as a science that could solve the problem of crime  Belief there is agreement on what a criminal is  Power differential- street vs. non-street crime that is examined and studied  Enlightenment ideals; European phenomenon that things can be done rationally and you can approach problems rationally (time of Beccaria writing) o Idea that you can map out human behavior using mathematical models o Individual behavior was a calculus ; we anticipate consequences and calculate outcomes (rational beings) and we are generally good people o Utilitarian perspective ; seek pleasure and avoid pain o Idea that we all have free will and we choose what we do o Apply to the criminal justice system; can answer the problem of crime (crime control is attainable) o Protest piece- trials by ordeal  **Beccaria difference between criminal and non-criminal: grey area between them; commit a crime if it is in our best interest to do so On crimes and punishment (1764)  Why punish?- the end of punishment is no other than to prevent others from committing the life offence o Not about retribution or the criminal deserved the punishment o **preventing others from committing that crime  Proportionality- degree of the punishment, and the consequences of crime, ought to be so contrived, as to have greatest possible effect on others, with least possibly pain to delinquent  Beccaria on death penalty and torture- punishment should be proportionate to the crime and on some level punishment is about violence o Pg. 58 “if he be not guilty… “ o No man has the right to kill another man; not about one individual (the criminal) o Achieve prevention through certainty of punishment o Nobility not important – doesn’t matter who you committed the crime against (issue of class) “punishment are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society” o Too severe punishments have opposite effect (Beccaria against severe punishment); a rational being knows severity of punishment o “in order for punishment not to be, in every instance, an act of violence of one or many against a private citizen it must be:  Essentially public (i.e. private trials for national security)  Prompt (in relation to how slow trials are in criminal justice system)  Necessary  Least possible given circumstances, proportionate to crime and dictated by laws” Classical theory today  Rational choice theory and routine activities theory rooted in classical theory o Routine activities theory- suitable target (i.e. laptop) and motivated offender (someone who needs laptop) and lack of capable guardians (left unattended) **reducing opportunity to commit crime** o Crime prevention as central  Schissel- determinations of culpability (system works when we think of individuals as rational beings- i.e. can’t be used when accused is intoxicated, using self-defense); things that impair free will (i.e. in first degree murdered who gets the most severe punishment for planning for murder)  Deterrence theory- o Severity- how harsh a punishment is (general belief that harsher punishments will reduce crime) **most important/talked about/emphasized the most** o Certainty- how likely you will be punished for committing an offence (likelihood of getting
More Less

Related notes for SOC205H5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit