Lecture 3 20140215
Shafted attention away from adults to delinquent male youths
o Two hundred males between ages 15 and 21 years of age
Produced an Index to Delinquency to measure problems
o A score of 10 was the most severe and required institutionalization
Classified physiques into three categories:
o Endomorphy: soft and fat, jovial, extroverted personality
o Mesomorphy: muscular and athletic, large body build and aggressive and extroverted
o Ectomorphy: skinny and flat, introverted personality.
Concluded the factors that produce delinquency were inherited.
He predicted mesomorphs have interest in physical activity and it also makes them want to engage in
Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck
• Comparative study of male delinquents and nondelinquents
• The delinquents were found to have narrow faces, wider chests, larger and broader waits, and bigger
forearms and upper arms.
• Most delinquents were mesomorph (=60%)
• These findings neglected the importance of sociological phenomenon
• Physical attractiveness is a category used to make assumptions of whether they are dangerous or not
—a physically unattractive person are more likely to be criminal rather than physically attractive.
• Films in United States, criminal offenders are portrayed as Black individuals.
IQ • Alfred Binet first pursued intelligence testing in laboratory settings
• With Theodore Simon, Binet revised his IQ tests and concluded that individuals should have a
mental age that could be identified with an intelligence quotient or IQ score
• Through the administration of the IQ test, Goddard concluded that most inmates (29%89%) were
The study of eugenics claimed that inheritance could explain the presence of simple and complex
human behavioral characteristics
It reinforced ideas of biological determinism
Between 19111930, more than 30 states established laws requiring sterilization for behavioral traits
thought to be determined genetically
Advocated for laws permitting psychosurgeries, including the frontal lobotomy
Supported the practices of sterilization and psychosurgery
The real reason for sterilization was not feeblemindedness, but rather class
Summary and Comparisons of the Classical and Positivist Schools Pertaining to Certain Issues These theories do not give attention to social and environmental factors; they ignore how social
relationships affect human behaviour. There is also a problem that theories do not view that we are
biologically different but that we are biologically inferior.
1. Gandhi and Mandela went to jail that makes them inferior.
2. Given rise to quite discriminatory practices such as hate crime, genocide and so forth because
they are biologically inferior. These behaviours support eugenics like genocide.
3. Canadian histories of Aboriginal people were murdered because European considered them to
4. Many of these theories have racial or class problems because these theories emerge from
Europeans of white dominance and privilege.
5. Theorists ignore white collars who are rich and superior, it sounds quite silly for hormonal for
6. Social structure refers to how society is organized distribution of social powers.
Sociological Explanations of Crime: Chicago School of Thoughts
Social process: how do we learn behaviour
Much of the positivist theories emerge out of the Chicago theory on the focus of urban sociology with
research in neighbourhoods.
Burgess came up with concentric zone theory earliest model of social structure and explains how
communities change over time.
Communities take time to see how they change over a series of time.
The Concentric Zone Model
1. Central Business District 2. Transitional Zone (key zone)
1. Recent immigrant groups
2. Deteriorated housing
4. Abandoned buildings
5. The zone in transition was a particular cause for concern & study because as the least
desirable living area, the zone had to weather the influx of waves in immigrants and other
migrants who were too poor to reside elsewhere.
6. Constant structures and changing family ties, not at homogenous as the suburbs, they are
transient and there are family breakages in the zone. Family and communal ties that bound
people together resulted in social disorganization. Look at the social structure poor
economic conditions and that is where the slum was.
7. How crime occurs? Most youth crime/street crime tends to happen in the transitional zone
according to scholars who use Burgess’s theory.
8. Nature of the environment that regulated involvement of crime. As they moved out of the
transitional zone to other zones, they were less likely to engage in crime.
9. Social disorganization like the ones in the transitional zone is what exposes youth to crime
came from poverty, racial and ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, urbanism/structural
density, family disruption, and so on—but not social disorganization itself directly.2
10. Shawn and McKay’s data confirmed the hypothesis that delinquency flourished in the zone
in transition and was inversely related to the zone’s affluence and corresponding distance
from the central business district.
11. This lead to the conclusion that it was the nature of the neighbourhood—not the nature of
the individuals within the neighbourhood—that regulated involvement in crime.
3. Working Class Zone
1. Single Family Tenements
4. Residential Zone
1. Single Family Homes
5. Commuter Zone
Limitations of Chicago School Theory
• Chicago criminologists emphasized the causal importance of the transmission of a “criminal culture” but
offered much less detail about the precise origins of this culture.
• Chicago theorists tended to see the spatial distribution of groups in the city as a “natural” social
process. • The theory seems to be best able to explain the involvement in stable criminal roles and in groupbased
delinquency but is less persuasive in providing insights on the cause of “crimes of passion” or other
impulsive offenses by people who have had little contact with deviant values.
• It cannot be scientifically tested or measured.
Edward Sutherland—Differential Association Theory
They view crime as a social process. Most people learn and socialize into normal behaviour and some
children are socialized into criminal behaviour dependent on the neighbourhoods they grew up.
Criminal behaviour was learned through social interactions.
1. Criminal behaviour is learned
2. Criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of commu