Lecture 4 20140215
1. What are the limits of this social theory?
2. How one theory differs from another?
3. What is the borne criminal or what is Sheldon body types, explain and define the significance
1. Define and explain the significance of two concepts
1. Each worth of 5% and choose two and define and explain their significance.
Only responsible for PowerPoint slides and class, only focus on the theories.
Please refer to chapter 3 for details on the Chicago school and chapter 2 p, 2021 for the classical
school. They both define criminality different. The classical school looks at the character of the person
who is capable and willing to be a criminal. This is very much situated in the idea that criminals are
calculating and choose to break the law. The Chicago School argued that the root cause of crime is
more social and is really a function of urban poverty. People learn to be criminal through social
interactions and through having legitimate goals but lacking the means to get it.
Introduction: Control Theory
• The question asked by control theorist: Why do people conform?
o There were many Vietnam wars, draft chargers coming into Canada, strong peace movement
across Canada and US—there was a lot of social turmoil.
o How do you create social theories in context to crime? Behaviour when there were so many
changes going around.
o Why would you accept rules of gratification and go to school, why should people conform to
rules? It becomes the central focus of these groups.
o Criminality is a normal part of nature, and the desire to commit crime is a nature and what
needs to be claimed is how people resist from temptation.
• Hirschi Social Control Theory
• Gottfredson & Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime
• Social control refers to our ability to resists temptations; social controls are the external factors that help
us resist us from criminality.
o Institutional factors: like prison.
Early Social Control Theorists: Albert J. Reiss Attempted to predict juvenile delinquency by explaining personal and social control
1. Personal control: the ability of the individual to refrain from meeting needs in ways which
conflict with the norms and rules of the community.
2. Social control: the ability of social groups or institutions to make norms or rules effective.
Early Control Theorists: F. Ivan Nye
• Sought to explain why delinquent and criminal behaviour is not more common
• Family most important social control over adolescents.
• The family could generate:
o Direct control: external forces
o Internalized control: internal forces or conscience
o Indirect control: extent of affection and identification with authority figures
o Control through alternative means of need satisfaction: “Delivery of goods” in a legitimate way
o These types of control are mutually reinforcing
Neutralization and Drift theory: Sykes and Matza
• If the social pressures causing delinquency were so powerful, why was it that even the worst of the
delinquents seemed to be fairly conventional people, actually conforming in so many other ways?
• Why did most not continue lawviolating behavior beyond a certain age?
• Most people who engage in criminal behaviour are during 1525, and then become lawabiding
• They argue individuals do have a moral code but in their youth is when people are likely to suspend
their moral code.
• Five Techniques of Neutralization (Table 5.2)
1. Denial of responsibility: my friends did it so I did
2. Denial of i