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SOC205H5 (139)
Lecture

Lecture 3

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC205H5
Professor
Paula Maurutto
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC205-THEORIES IN CRIMINOLOGY LECTURE 3: 1/24/14 CONTINUING FROM LAST CLASS… William Sheldon -shifted attention away from adults to delinquent male youths -200 males btw 15 and 21 yrs old -produced an Index to Delinquency to measure problems -a score of 10 was the most severe and required institutionalization -American psychologist -created field of somatotype -tried to correlate the types of bodies that ppl had with their social hierarchy and intelligence -in the 1940’s tried to see the connection btw body type and types of criminal behavior -his theories were dismissed by his peers -he became popular bc he shifted attention from male adults to youth population -classified physiques into 3 categories: 1. endomorphy: soft and fat (Rob Ford) -large, relaxed and extroverted 2. mesomorphy: muscular and athletic (Obama) -larger body build with action body build with extroverted personality 3. ectomorphy: skinny and flat ( -shy personality, introverted personality -mesomorphs are more likely to take risks and engage in more risky behavior -Sheldon’s theory didn’t fit Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck -a comparative study of male delinquents and nondelinquents -the delinquents were found to have narrower faces, wider chests, larger and broader waists and bigger forearms and upper arms -most delinquents were mesomorphs (~60%) -these findings neglected the importance of social -study by Vitoria -looked at ppls images of dangerous offender -what do you depict to be dangerous? -looked at physical attractiveness -284 ppl, given a facial photograph -“how likely does this person commit crime X or Y” -found that ppl had inherited biases based on how they look -found that, physically unattractive person is more likely to commit crimes *last 2 slides with the charts is IMPORTANT*helps to organize thoughts and notes -don’t give attention to biological factors and environmental factors -theories don’t see criminals as biologically different but biologically inferior -given rise to quite discriminatory practices (hate crimes, lynching, genocidejust bc biologically inferior) -eugenics mvmt lead to involuntary sterilization of 1000’s ppl who were members of marginalized societies (poor, and radicalized minorities) -these theories reinforce white dominance and privilege -much of rsh focuses on street crimes by the poor -completely ignores white collar crimes -doesn’t sound crazy that biological problems lead poor to commit crimes but it does sound crazy that white ppl would commit price fixing Movie: Bowling for Columbine -south park clip: history of America -the fear of the black man -“Africanized bees”aggressive -murder rate down by 20%, the rate at which it was shown on TV went up by 500% -crime rates drop while fear rates increase -cops TV show -crime has more ratings than a smog problem or a baby drowning Sociological Explanations of Crime -social structure refers to how society is organized (economics and social relations) -social processes (how do we learn behavior) -Why do ppl commit crime? -University of Chicago: urban neighborhoods and sociology -1830s-1910: industrialization and growth in cities which lead to more crime -much of UofC focused on slums in crimes in the city -burgess looked at how cities are organized -concentric zone theory: cities generally take the shape of 5 concentric rings 1. Central Business District: 2. Transitional Zone: key zone -recent immgrants come to live -detrotired housing -facoties -abaonded buldings 3. Working Class Zone -little better off 4. Residential Zone -single family homes -yards and garages 5. Commuter zone: -suburbs *Mississauga doesn’t really fit this model but fit early Toronto -transitional zone: ppl come into this zone initially but quickly move out -constant move in this zone -social disorganization in this zone -a lot of heterogeneity -weakened community networks -slums located here -Shaw and McKay -use this model and linked it to criminology -how crime spread through Chicago in 1930’s and 1940’s -most and youth crime happened in transitional zone, and less criminal activity as you move out -nature of environment regulated involvement in crime -urban growth, poverty and lack of social networkleads to disorganization of societyleads to greater crime Edward Sutherland, 1883-1950—Differential Association Theory -born in Nebraska -PhD @ University of Chicago -developed theory of Differential Association -through interactions with others, criminal behavior is learned -how ppl learn criminal behavior -why criminality i
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