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Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Paula Maurutto

SOC205: THEORIES IN CRIMINOLOGY Lecture 7: 3/7/2014 Varieties of Conflict Theory (Marxist Theory) -4 factors behind the shift to new conflict theory: 1. There was a profound skepticism toward any theory that traced crime to something about the individual 2. There was a marked shift from the assumption that the inadequacies of the CJS were traced to be incompetent or corrupt individuals to the conclusion that these problems were inherent in the system -in Europehigh rates of deportation -in UShigh rates of incarceration -Marxism looks at social structures not the individual 3. Older assumptions that criminal law represented the collective will of the ppl was rejected -we accept crime because it should work 4. It has become clear the official crime rate figures did not reflect the amount of the criminal behavior actually present n society but also that what they did reflect more often was the labeling behavior of the authorities The Gendering of Criminology: Feminist Theories -Marxism blames everything on capitalism -Marxism focuses to narrowly on class relations and places other forms of inequality as secondary (race, gender etc). -many types of feminist criminologies, and sophistications -1/5 of criminals are women -women and girlssmall portion in jail -crimes typically committed: theft under, fraud, common assaults and bail violations -repeat offendersaddicted to drugs or in sex trade profession Prefeminist Pioneers and Themes -theoretical and research attention directed toward determining the differences btw criminal and noncriminal women -2 classes of women: -good women who were not criminal -bad women who were criminal Cesare Lombroso (positivist): factors that make up criminal women (the criminal man) -biological characteristics: primitive, w/ distinctive features: web-like feet -in the Female Offender, female criminality was described as an inherent tendency of women who had not developed properly into feminine women with moral refinement -criminal women were more masculine than feminine -short, dark-haired W.I Thomas -Sex and Society (book): men and women were fundamentally different -focuses primarily on physiological issues -men for example, had more sexual energy than women. This allowed men to purse women or sexual reason and allowed women, in turn to exchange sexy for domesticity Edward Sutherland -delinquency among girls was less frequent than boys, but when it did occur, they were more promiscuous The Emergence of New Questions: Bringing Women In -1961, Walter C. Reckless questioned whether any theory of delinquency that would be accepted -the first wave of feminism focused on extending rights to women (right to vote) (1920’s-1930’s) -rebelling against gender norms (equal employment opportunities, right to own property) -the second wave, denounced the domestic sphere as oppressive to women and sought to achieve equality with men in the public sphere (1960’s) -more women enter university, challenging gender inequality amongst men and women -increased participation in workforce, and thus new explanation of female crime were developed From Women’s Emancipation and to Patriarchy: Patriarchy and Crime -Adler: Sisters in Crimeargued lifting restrictions on women’s opportunities in the marketplace gave them the chance to be greedy, violent and crime prone as men -the pervasiveness of male dominance in the patriarchal society and its impact on crimes committed both by men and women -the emphasis on power differences btw men and women led women into powerless types of crime -crime was studied under the man, and women were just added on no necessarily studied specifically -women caught transporting drugs, and the men who run the drug trade are untouched -use women bc women are less likely to get caught -charges include trafficking Liberal Feminism: gender socialization ads the cause of crime Marxist Feminism: class and gender division of labor combine to determine the social position of women and men Radical Feminism: crime is an expression of men’s need to control Socialist Feminism: examine the connections brew capitalism and patriarchy The Intersection of Race, Class and Gender -initial feminist perspectives tended to implicitly treat women as monolithic or homog
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