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Lecture 10

SOC205-lecture 10.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Paula Maurutto

SOC205-THEORIES IN CRIMINOLOGY LECTURE 10: 3/28/14 Risk Assessment (RA) -Don Andrews* -revolution in ways criminal conduct is managed -don’t through reassessment of risk (low, medium or high risk) -re-establishing rehabilitation -from ‘nothing works’ through ‘what works’ -became popular bc nothing worked and needed to figure out what worked -RA isefficient, cost effective and evidence based Part of Transition to Crime Control but with a Focus on Rehab -Actuarial or quasi: actuarial tools make predictions about future recidivates -most likely repeat offenses: breaches (probation, curfew) or drug offenses RA Scales -Tools used need to be paid for each time of use (they are copyrighted) 1) Specific risk tools: sexual offenses, domestic (ODARA) 2) Generic risk tools: can be used on any population, on any offender, on any criminal justice system internationally, any gender, any racial categories -LSI-R is used internationally* -used during sentencing hearings when pre-sentencing reports are needed, LSI’s are required -if being considered for parole, LSI’s are needed -**think about theories and frameworks that claim to be general theories of crime** -critical theories (marxist, feminist, labeling) vs. positivist theories (general theories of crime) -these tools WILL have elements of positivist theories embedded in them Appeal of RA -reliability and certaining “the tamoing of chance” or “colonizing the future” -they are statistical analysis so you can predict future outcomes -they are standardized, consistent and transparent (curtail discretion) -the same assessment tool across the board, so it DECREASES the chance of bias -accountable and defensible -ex. BC started using the ORA because a probation officer decided to release an offender but once released, he went on to kill another probation officer. How did this officer decide to release them? With the use of a RA tool, they’re decision can be defended and they can be held accountable. Operationalization of Risk -RA tools do not allow things to change over time : such as criminal history, age(STATIC RISK) -DYNAMIC RISK factors can change over time, and relate to recidivism: martial/family, substance abuse employed, attitudes, community functioning etc. -these can be changed, an
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