- Quote: (jones 2010:6 as quoted in Smith 2011:2)
- Paraphrase: (jones 2010 as cited by smith 2011)
- 20 percent
- Theory, take one and compare to other theories, limitations of the theories or how well it
can account for criminal behaviour (limits of the theory)
o ESSAY FORMAT
- Part B: 2 out of three concepts and define/ explain their significance
o Essay Format ^ each worth 5 %
o 2 paragraphs for each question
o Any theory that was discussed in lecture.
Social control theories
- History: by late 60’s to the 90’s
- In the 50’s there was social cohesion, great prosperity and social stability
- This changed in the sixties, we get massive social change. Civil rights movement.
Feminism arguing for equal rights. Protest against Vietnam and USA involvement.
- All these movement in 1960’s collapse of social cohesion. A lot of social turmoil.
- This is when social control theories emerge and become prominent in criminology
- They come at a time when there is lots of concern for society.
- They are different from previous theories. Most of the theories we looked at assume that
something causes criminal behaviour; whether it be strain, biological deficit,
- ^ something goes wrong, resulting in someone engaging in crime.
- Animals are self-interested, so are humans: we are guided by self- interest.
- Control theories assume that desire to commit crime is natural.
Why do people conform? - Not all of us commit crime, not all steal when they need something, or hit when someone
is frustrating us
- So what prevent us from engaging in criminal behaviour
- ^ What control theories try to explain? They present the restraints that prevent people
from engaging in crime
- ^ they develop theory of conformity.
Albert J Reiss:
- Attempted to predict juvenile delinquency by explaining personal and social controls
- Personal control: it’s the ability to resist temptation. The ability of the individual to refrain
from meeting needs in ways which conflict the norms and rules of the community
- Social control: the ability of social groups or institutions to make norms or rules effective
o We resist to engage in crime to avoid punishment
o These institutions are forms of social control not personal control
o Prison is a social control.
- He argues there are different types of social controls acting on individual
F. Ivan Nye:
- sought to explain why delinquent behaviour and criminal behaviour is not common
- If we all are animalistic then what is stopping us from engaging in criminal behaviour
- Family is the most important social control over adolescents. Where you develop norms.
- The Family:
o Direct control: external forces, parents, teachers. They directly limits to what you
can do. Example curfew
o Internal control: internal forces of conscience. How you regulate your behaviour
through ego and conscience.
o Indirect control: extent of affection and identification with authority fig. Someone
who can indirectly help you control your behaviour
o Control though alternative means of need satisfaction: delivery of goods in a
legitimate way. Society provides this^, a way for people to fulfill their needs w/o resorting
to criminal behaviour
- Emphasizes on family control. Focused on family as a unit of socialization.
- Integration and regulation of norms goes hand in hand together.
Sykes and Matza Neutralization and Drift Theory:
- Why is it that even the worst of delinquents are still conforming to social norms? For the
- If the social pressures causing delinquency were so powerful why is it that even the
worst of delinquents seem to be conventional people?
- Why do most not continue law-violating behaviour after certain age?
- If you have learned criminal behaviour then why is it that by the time you turn 25 you
have leaned law abiding behaviour.
Five techniques of neutralization:
- Denial of responsibility
o Claiming they were not responsible for the act
- Denial of injury
o Nobody really got hurt. Stealing isn’t hurting anyone
o You can rationalize stealing from a bug corporation.
- Denial of victim
o Denial that a person has been harmed.
o They had it coming, they are not the victim they initiated it. Most assault cases.
- Condemnation of the condemners
o Rejecting people who criticize you
o What right do people have to tell me my behaviour is bad
o Drug abuse: I’m selling drugs well people want to buy it, whats wrong with it
- Appeal to higher loyalties
o Doing it for someone else.
o People try to use this to justify their behaviour - They use these techniques to justify their behaviours
- Delinquents do regret their behaviour, they do know right from wrong; they are law
abiding in other aspects.
- Even those engaging in delinquent behaviour are not isolated of social norms and
Hirschi’s Social control theory:
- Travis Hirschi; social control theory and self-control theory
- Causes of delinquency: his book, where his ideas of social bonds come from
- How individuals build social bonds? How people make them and how they act as