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Lec#4 (Jan31st).docx

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Paula Maurutto

Grammar - Quote: (jones 2010:6 as quoted in Smith 2011:2) - Paraphrase: (jones 2010 as cited by smith 2011) Test: - 20 percent - Theory, take one and compare to other theories, limitations of the theories or how well it can account for criminal behaviour (limits of the theory) o ESSAY FORMAT - Part B: 2 out of three concepts and define/ explain their significance o Essay Format ^ each worth 5 % o 2 paragraphs for each question o Any theory that was discussed in lecture. Social control theories - History: by late 60’s to the 90’s - In the 50’s there was social cohesion, great prosperity and social stability - This changed in the sixties, we get massive social change. Civil rights movement. Feminism arguing for equal rights. Protest against Vietnam and USA involvement. Hippies movement - All these movement in 1960’s  collapse of social cohesion. A lot of social turmoil. - This is when social control theories emerge and become prominent in criminology - They come at a time when there is lots of concern for society. - They are different from previous theories. Most of the theories we looked at assume that something causes criminal behaviour; whether it be strain, biological deficit, psychological problem. - ^ something goes wrong, resulting in someone engaging in crime. - Animals are self-interested, so are humans: we are guided by self- interest. - Control theories assume that desire to commit crime is natural. Why do people conform? - Not all of us commit crime, not all steal when they need something, or hit when someone is frustrating us - So what prevent us from engaging in criminal behaviour - ^ What control theories try to explain? They present the restraints that prevent people from engaging in crime - ^ they develop theory of conformity. Albert J Reiss: - Attempted to predict juvenile delinquency by explaining personal and social controls - Personal control: it’s the ability to resist temptation. The ability of the individual to refrain from meeting needs in ways which conflict the norms and rules of the community - Social control: the ability of social groups or institutions to make norms or rules effective o We resist to engage in crime to avoid punishment o These institutions are forms of social control not personal control o Prison is a social control. - He argues there are different types of social controls acting on individual F. Ivan Nye: - sought to explain why delinquent behaviour and criminal behaviour is not common - If we all are animalistic then what is stopping us from engaging in criminal behaviour - Family is the most important social control over adolescents. Where you develop norms. - The Family: o Direct control: external forces, parents, teachers. They directly limits to what you can do. Example curfew o Internal control: internal forces of conscience. How you regulate your behaviour through ego and conscience. o Indirect control: extent of affection and identification with authority fig. Someone who can indirectly help you control your behaviour o Control though alternative means of need satisfaction: delivery of goods in a legitimate way.  Society provides this^, a way for people to fulfill their needs w/o resorting to criminal behaviour - Emphasizes on family control. Focused on family as a unit of socialization. - Integration and regulation of norms goes hand in hand together. Sykes and Matza Neutralization and Drift Theory: - Why is it that even the worst of delinquents are still conforming to social norms? For the most part. - If the social pressures causing delinquency were so powerful why is it that even the worst of delinquents seem to be conventional people? - Why do most not continue law-violating behaviour after certain age? - If you have learned criminal behaviour then why is it that by the time you turn 25 you have leaned law abiding behaviour. Five techniques of neutralization: - Denial of responsibility o Claiming they were not responsible for the act - Denial of injury o Nobody really got hurt. Stealing isn’t hurting anyone o You can rationalize stealing from a bug corporation. - Denial of victim o Denial that a person has been harmed. o They had it coming, they are not the victim they initiated it. Most assault cases. - Condemnation of the condemners o Rejecting people who criticize you o What right do people have to tell me my behaviour is bad o Drug abuse: I’m selling drugs well people want to buy it, whats wrong with it - Appeal to higher loyalties o Doing it for someone else. o People try to use this to justify their behaviour - They use these techniques to justify their behaviours - Delinquents do regret their behaviour, they do know right from wrong; they are law abiding in other aspects. - Even those engaging in delinquent behaviour are not isolated of social norms and values. Hirschi’s Social control theory: - Travis Hirschi; social control theory and self-control theory - Causes of delinquency: his book, where his ideas of social bonds come from - How individuals build social bonds? How people make them and how they act as
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