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week 9 - november 7.docx

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Nicole Myers

SOC305 Criminology and Post-Colonialism Nov. 7 2012 Last week  Suggesting the feminism and criminology courses and journals are stagnant  How can feminism and feminist theory be useful criminology?  We need to move beyond this idea that we need to focus on women for it to be feminist criminology  That there is concern that we are adding women to the mix and that is alluding women into criminology  Belfour – focused on what can we do? how can we improve this? Why are things the way they are?  Balfour – wants us to find a way to make feminism relevant again, she is concerned that feminism has lost its relevance over the years o Suggests that there is this large umbrella that is feminism with many different sections underneath it and those sections don’t necessarily agree with one another  Radical feminist and liberal feminist have different views, so while they are both feminist they come at the perspectives with different questions  Balfour and her focus on what can be done she seemed mostly concerned with patriarchy and how it is very manifested in the CJS  In trying to consider the ideas around embodiment – help reveal the practices, pre-natal screening= become a space for policing o Pregnancy is experienced in a specific way and then we have these tests in terms of regulating pregnancy  Differences between safety and security: o security is about delineating a line between the self and the other, we are creating a separateness o Safety seems to be more about a closeness, a bringing together, there isn’t a separation of the self and the other as we see in discourses around security o Embodiment – used to explore why security talk dominates  Women are often presented as the objects of study  Looks at the female body as an object  The entire experience about pregnancy is about embodiment but that is the picture that represents it Objects of study  Also comes up in discussions around colonialism  Colonialism- the establishment, the exploitation, the acquisition, expansions of colonies and territories by one particular ppl over another territory and another ppl o it is the process whereby the metro-poll claims the sovereignty o e.g. British Empire where there was this central sovereign but then they went around the world and instituted a colonial structure  Colonialism represents an unequal relationship between the colonizer and the colony  There is also unequal relations between the colonizer (the people that showed up in the colony) and the indigenous population that lives there  The purpose of colonialism is about generating wealth and control  It’s about managing and regulating populations  Often involved a criminalization of the beliefs, the rituals, the language, and the culture of those who first lived in the settlement  The ideas of the objects of study come through when we start talking about issues around colonialism o Tells us that once we start telling the story and speaking on someone’s behalf and representing their story, we’ve become the authorized knowers  In effect scholars are re-colonizing the other o Tightrope that post-colonial scholars have to negotiate  When we talk about feminism the way we talk about colonialism we see the idea of wanting narrative, giving voice, allowing ppls subjectivity (their personal experience to come through) and their voice to come through  Balfour flags this in her writing, in her discussion of what can we do? We see a slippage of how or who is authorized to know and who is authorized what to do to fix things o So who is? Are they academics? They’ve read, they’ve listened, they relive narrative, but then they re-interpret them Bell Hooks quote  What concerns are coming forward in this quote? What is she cautioning us against? o Absolute objectivity o Providing a critique where we do research around ppl and we take that information in and spin it  Giving credit as though it was ones’ own experience o That there is the removal around the actual knower, who should be the focus o It gets reinterpreted and translated through the writer o How does this change or shift the story? o Who’s story is it? o Emphasis on the importance of reflexivity – act about self-examination, bending back yourself  Recognizing ones position of power  Recognizing the words of other  Refraining from providing personal interpretation and spinning it off as your own o This idea of reflexivity is important for us in trying to understand how colonial knowledge is produced and realizing how these colonial knowledge’s come in and they get reinscribed o And it’s the self-awareness of these colonial traditions and ideas and that a lot of the things happens continues to have an impact not only on those who have been colonized, but it frames the types of questions we ask and the type of knowledge we create o In being reflexive of this is about moving towards a post-colonial space Mawani  Despite the influences of colonialism, the relationship between racial domination and colonial and criminological knowledge as practices have not been fully analyzed  And we need to analyze the insights that have been gained through a post-colonial time  Try to make clear that we need to reveal the centrality of race  And the race is central even if race is not the actual object of study  Suggest that our historical narratives that speak of race and criminality connect racial identity with criminality, and by doing so were seeing an assumption of racial inferiority o Rae is always there even when it is not the object of study  And underlying these are our assumptions of inferiority  And they want us to think that these ideas continue to inform our contemporary debate  Suggest that we have not had a clear break from our colonial past  2 objectives: o Dive into how older colonial discourses have informed criminology as a whole o And what are the possibilities of a post-colonial theory? Where will it take us?  They highlight problems with garlands work o Talks about the new penology, the culture of control, neoliberalism o While there are parts that make sense, they argue that garland has ignored the historical role of colonial knowledge o And that this role that colonial knowledge has in shaping the relationship between race, crime , and punishment  When garland talks about the culture of control he is referring to the shifts in the political cultures of late modern western societies, a shift from a welfare state to a neoliberal state  He argues that this shift from welfare to neoliberal came with corresponding shifts in our penal cultures  We have shifted to the neo-liberal penalty which at its core has mass incarceration  So while Mawani and Sealey argue that this was an important development and that garland discovered some important events that are happening and they don’t dispute their shifts, they are just saying that garland did not properly problematize the relationship between a culture of fear and the radicalized other  Their concerned that in focusing on discussing the shifts to neoliberalism we have neglected how it is that mass incarcerations has strong connections to a colonial history  Take us back to talk about Wacquant – talked about peculiar institutions, he made parallels between slavery and Jim crow laws, and the link with the ghetto and the prisons, that really all we have done is gotten rid of slavery but now we incarceration, arguing that incarceration, that the hyper poverty that we see in the ghetto is simply contemporary slavery  Mawana and Sealey discuss a number of types of questions or forms of the research that has been done on incarceration  Highlight 4 different sections for the object of inquiry Research on over-incarceration (31)  How it is examining the discretion and the cjs o Where we see work on racial profiling o Examining the discretionary power of police o Looking at the way that those with discretionary power use it and the factors they let influence their decisions  Mawanin and sealey assume that this can be remedied, we can simply fix this with better criminological knowledge and by implementing different policies  The concern that they have that with more knowledge we can fix this or that with policy change we can adjust or acknowledge the discretionary change and remove any concerns around racial profiling o T
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