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Chapter Seven.doc

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Nicole Myers

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Chapter Seven: The Social Disorganization Perspective Pathology can exist at a social level  characteristic of Social Disorganization perspective Social conditions influenced people’s behaviors. Sociological Positivism emerged when thinkers from various backgrounds [philosophy, theology] began to look for regularities in social life. Religion was another motivating factor-those who were well off were advised by their religious leaders to think about spirituality and morals. Emile Durkheim & Sociological Positivism − Founders of sociology saw societies as organisms that could adapt to their environments and evolve over time − Social facts are explained by social facts and rejected sociological explanations that were biological or psychological − Deviance is natural to the social organism or it is the pathology of that organism − He said deviance is actually natural and helps society to function effectively − Early societies did same kind of work and shared similar experiences. So, if one broke any rule, it would offend all members and the punishment would be approved by all members- they shared a common ‘conscience’  Mechanical Solidarity [sameness, common values] − Mechanical is now transformed into Organic Solidarity [difference, interdependence & few common values] - complex division of labor; diminishment of common conscience; police, bartenders, bankers etc. all have different consciousness on moral issues that very few issues would offend all groups equally or compel them to respond similarly. − Less moral outrage in organic solidarity; Too much freedom so less control − He said this rapid social change and inconsistencies could weaken society’s level of integration, regulation and allow socially harmful pathological forms of deviance − Social change in his time created a society characterized by Anomie & Egoism. Anomie- lack of integration in the group; people don’t have firm moral values that are needed to hold them in society & Egoism- lack of regulation in group; lives that are not supervised/regulated − These two lead to high suicide, mental illness and crime Emergence of Chicago School • Haymarket Riot of 1886- bomb that killed 7 cops and police responding by releasing fire on the crowd • Chicago School created over night • Chicago Area Project [CAP]- to bring organization to disorganized areas Social Disorganization Theory  Rapid social change led to a breakdown of common values and regulation in certain parts of society, allowing anomic forms of deviance like mental illness and suicide to emerge  Kinds of change associated with SD: 1. Urbanization-movement from simple rural social order to a complex crowded urban order 2. Migration- movement of people from close-knit, homogenous rural society to anonymous, heterogeneous urban area 3. Immigration- movement of people from diverse backgrounds into America’s melting pot 4. Industrialization- transformation of employment patterns and development of industrial working classes 5. Technological Change- change that outstrips adaptation  Disorganization included anything that seemed deviant or pathological when compared to ‘simple, rural life’  There was an importance of primary relations [informal, face- to-face, personal interaction] & secondary relations [formal, direct, less personal]. Rural areas had more primary relations and the thought was if someone had more personal meaningful relationships, they wouldn’t indulge in deviant behavior. Urban areas, due to anonymity + isolation, there are more secondary relations. Human Ecology  Study of spatial and temporal relations among people and how they are affected by social and economic competition for space and resources. People from different ethnic groups are seen as ‘users’ of social space and as ‘species’ trying to achieve individual or group survival  Also called ‘human ecology theory of urban dynamics’  Nine important concepts: o Invasion- when a new group is introduced into a territory; Gentrification- when upper middle
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