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Lecture notes SOC 209.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Philip Goodman

1/31/2013 10:14:00 AM Lecture 2 … Serious/violent crime is on the rise - Locking people up is making the crimes to go down - Increasing sentencing – need to be tougher Recidivism notoriously hard to calculate, harder to compare—but often lower than in U.S. and little evidence of widespread and wholesale increases Parole grant rates fairly stable around 45% for full parole Rative that someone has committed a crime and is released but done it again, because violated parole Government : definition that is restrictive U.S.: very high and advicate more resources, making big data mess No evidence that the story is getting worse Some same canada does better then US Video clip Committed suicide in women‘s penitentiary – lived for the past in custody in horrific conditions In Kitchener A women killed herself in front of an guards and the guards did not do anything Was transferred 17 times from diff facilities facilities – mental health diagnosis – she was a problem to pass on, no prison wanted her cause she kept destroying the property There is no place for people like smith, that are criminally charged and are mentally unstable So she was sent to places with doctors which she was treated and she would get better and be transferred back and would go back to her destruction She was in the prison in the first place is because she threw an apple to a person delivering mail Mental health problem She would destroy property so she would increase her probation Why did the guards did not intervene – they were asked not to because of being transferred so many times for help of her mental health She negotiated with the system – so she could get attention and get some human interaction with others so she would constantly to harm herself so there would be some human contact but it was always forceful So without rewarding this behaviour of suicide, so the staff watched her die. Type of society and types of law (reading article) Article Description about what occurs in high school Argument about these two groups : Saints and Roughnecks Looking at class but can be said about race and ethnicity to Saints are more deviant and roughnecks are constructed in different way they are more disobedient – constructed by school and police Perceptions are different Despite what they did in high school (acting out) and they are entering to university and few straighten out but not a lot some roughnecks get into the bad outcome Out of control people, the way they are perceived Perceptions are consequential SOC209 January 24 LEC 3 What about in Canada? Idle No More & First Nations Canadians From the website of the OCI ( -- ―Established in 1991, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) concluded that ‗the justice system has failed Aboriginal people‘ -- While Aboriginal peoples comprise 2.7 percent of the adult Canadian population, approximately 18.5 percent of offenders now serving federal sentences are of First Nations, Métis and Inuit ancestry (Correctional Service Canada, 2006.) -- While the federally incarcerated population in Canada declined by 12.5 percent from 1996 to 2004, the number of First Nations people in federal institutions increased by 21.7 percent. -- Should the current trend continue unchecked, the Aboriginal population in Canada's correctional institutions could reach the 25 percent mark in less than 10 years.‖ A ‗New Puntiviness‘? Definitions of ‗the new punitiveness,‘ especially in light of our discussion of the relationship between law and society Link between crime trends and increasingly punitive measures Does the ‗punitive turn‘ adequately capture criminal justice practices in Canada? Does ‗tough justice‘ work? Rafter: Shots in the Mirror -Why study movies? - traditional crime films frameworks: -criticize some aspects of society (police brutality, legal barriers to justice, etc) -identifying a character who restores order -thus crime films are ―progressive‖ nut mot radical -since 1970s, ―alternative tradition‖ refusing easy answers and neat endings Why they went bad: Criminology in Crime Films -drawing on, and embodying, popular criminological explanations -major types: -born bad -made bad -twisted psyches - Aspiration and longing insane, perverted, sick and diseased – need to be incapacitated -―alternative tradition‖ -extra category when things don‘t quite fit -some films resist the temptation to present simplistic notions of why people commit crimes -do movies cause crime? -no direct link Eschhoz et al: Images of Crime in Television -how much of an impact do television shows like Law and Order and NYPD Blue make on people‘s beliefs? -discrepancies in the ratios -over-represent homicides -overstate success rates - Race.gender proportions - Types of crime - Success rates - Civil rights violations - Overall image of crimes vs. Law enforcement Beckett: Role of the Media -media‘s role in agenda setting -what/how/why presented -public’s attitudes are shaped by the media -Beckett‘s larger thesis: first politics, then fear of crime, then punitiveness -Crime and drug issues as packages and frames -crime packages: respect for authority, balance needs, civil liberties under attack, poverty causes crime -drug packages: get the traffickers, zero-tolerance, need more resources, war fails -the vast majority of people that do the talking to the media on crime and drugs are state sponsored actors -control oriented views on crime -larger image: people are not committing crime because they are poor, they are doing it because they are criminals \ people know what they are doing and it is organized crime and they are committed to a certain lifestyle Lecture 4 January 31, 2013 Richardson and Kennedy What is gang Why should we care Don‘t really know what it is, to young criminal activity Refers to group of friends that did not do any criminal activity Gang can fit into different categories Group of bickers (sell drugs) Mafia Gang appeared more frequently in newspapers Gang is emptied of its meaning, more concerned how it is interpreted by a group of ppl Is powerful, used by dominant groups, Representation of negative aspect – police, murder, - gangs in 2010 Gang can reflect class, race, and stereotypes Groups are composed of white memebers Gangs are created to show fear to the population Are gangs a problem in the society Democratic discution Empty signifies Refying stereotypes, Race, Hegemony, Street rage White Collar Crime Clip: CTV news Defrauding an investors, the fight against white collar crime What is white - collar crime? Part of problem The way they are treated are by letting them go and very little punishment, Canada has a terrible trial record A lot of resources are going into fighting such crime Class and ―White Collar‖ Crime (Snider) Allegations that ‗Corporate‘ criminals treated more leniently Do we find this argument persuasive? If so, why do these disparities and inequalities exist? What should be done about the? What is the link to neoliberalism? Occupational health and safety Environment protection victims are being blamed for the crimes for being gullible competition combines, stock market crime social crimes – occupational health and safety and environmental crimes self regulation – production goals, working conditions, negotiating working conditions – power workers and creates more free time one size with most approach unequal footing potential dangers environmental laws have a problem in human rights about production working Case Study: the savings and loan crisis (Calavita and Pontell 1990) Savings and loans: Bank. Mortgages Gov‘t bail out probably approaching 500 billion dollars The crime and Fraud (80% of insolvency due to crime and misconduct) Unlawful risk taking Collective embezzlement Robing ones own bank, taking money out of its own account Covering up Operators from savings and loan covering by books, So , why did it happen? Deregulation Obvious factor Networks of influence Structural conflicts and problem with enforcement Disorganized Ties two above up Jeffrey Reiman;s The rich get richer and the poor get prison) Reducing crime How to design a system that would fail Criminalize acts no unwilling victim Discretion Make prison demeaning Impart few, if any, marketable skills Collateral consequences Pyrrhic defeat theory ‗Real‘ sources of crime poverty, prison, guns, drugs More ppl die from unsafe-unhealthy work conditions than murder, getting middle class to look to street crime rather than corporate and industrial crime Prisoners get meaningful jobs, it is crime even if they know someone that did an criminal offence White collar crime is dangerous crime – than street crime But we are mostly focused on street crime Gender and the Criminal Justice System (part 1, Balfour) Basic statistics Increased criminalization and control (in women), but is it a response to increasing crime rates by women in Canada? Indministtratice justice chargers and women committing crimes Women as victims nd prisoners, not just offenders Inferor treatement and prison conditions Co-operation of feminist reinformers How to move forward Well-fail fraud – woman – 6 month sentence of house arrest Black mother was arrested in importing drugs from Africa Aboriginal women was arrested for prostitution Women victimization, criminalization and … Gender unequalization Treatement, mental health services – but instead prole obligations are discussed Gender and the Criminal Justice system (part 2, Hannah-moffat and shaw) Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women (TFFSW) and report Creating Choices Attempt to be women-centered Failed, due to problems with implementation Perhaps also deeper problems re: difficulty of prison reform Cycle of poor conditions, treatment and outcomes -> calls for reform -> failed implementation and co-optation -> status quo -> calls for reform Help for women – treatments, counseling and simple household chores Program support for women that go back to the community, treatement with dignity and respect So the community is responsible for their actions and their well being Gener and CJ thought questions Should … Bringing it all together Whether looking at class or gender, clear that the Canadian criminal justice system is both producer and product of inequality Intractability of inequality Reforms are both histocially-contingent (reflect their ttime) … Film: Steel and Paint grategford prison 4000 prisoners facility Tom Homicide drug addict Stole money to get drugs Daughter died and he thought it is his fault He regrets it Zafir Killed someone Regrets it Same routine everyday 25 years in prison Jane golden - Mural painting of the community - went to prison for a mural talk - runs a mural program - one of the prisoners asked her to come to the prison and do a project with them, cause it is important for them to come back - the prisoners kept repainting the mural and Jane asked why they said because they are afraid that when they finish it they wont be able to come back to the community - the prisoners saw a way to get back and make a difference to the community by going out to the community and paint a mural Speaker - University of Toronto police or 33 years - diploma in law and secutiry and degree in utm 4500 first population of utm – had north and davis building that where small - 13,000 population in utm - 1980 problems remain today - ages from 17 -25  man and women that are away from home for the first time so they are free and think they have everything they want - no fences - public place but a private property - why do we need police at utm  1100 incidents o offences against ppl o offences against property o medical emergencies o mental health act incidents - 6/7 assaults a year 1/2 secual assaults get threatening and domestic calls - harassement - 20 incidents, being harassed by other ppl to the point they cannot longer function in the university because there is so much ppl so some ppl go in hiding, - sometime deal with family and stuents,  drugs  sedative drug  exctasy pills - grow in size the incidences grow in size they deal with it? - campus police - 12 officers - appointed by the original police board - he is not a police officer but have police powers  investigation of offence – reasonable ground to search someone  to make an arrest  and crimininaly charge that person  legal liscence act o if ur drunk they can give u a ticket fo public drinking  have provincial powers  by law authority – tow the car of the parking - being proactive  addressing an issue before charging anyone - Independent police that look after utm Lecture 5 I. Racial, Ethnic & First Nations Disparities Considerable evidence, but some of it highly contested Not contested: over-represented at every stage of CJ system e.g., black Canadians in Ontario (3%/12%/15% prov.) e.g., Saskatchewan, 35X rate non-Aboriginal Canadians Contested: why? Wortley: systemic discrimination Stop & search data show actually worse off for Blacks who are wealthy & youth not involved in crime Kingston Pilot project Remand problem In prisons and jails Colour-blind myth Samuelson and Monture-Angus: colonialism History of reserves, residential schools, battles over land and resources Cosmetic vs. deep changes to police forces Why Racial Profiling Doesn’t Work (Harcourt 2007: Against Prediction) Profiling assumes that people are not responsive to policing Result is the conclusion that if minorities commit more crime, profiling is some how ―rational‖ (efficient use of resources) But if, instead, some differential ―elasticity‖ (point is to reduce crime, not to conduct successful searches) Ends up actually increasing crime, as those who are less profiled respond by committing more crime (minorities less elastic) Shows that in fact only way to end up with a representative sample (% offenders = % arrestees) is to use random procedures in policing How might this be implemented? Colour blind approach? Racial quotas? Some other random method? A Closer Look at Aboriginal Offenders in Canada (Landau 2006) Push for self-government Section 718 of criminal code Ignoring broader historical and political context from which characteristics have emerged Interviewed youth Aboriginal prisoners in Nunavut: deep feelings of marginalization few actually experience most innovative cj reforms mostly probation, part of system Reasons for over-representation among young Aboriginal Canadians: Poverty Low social support Increased surveillance Beliefs, attitudes Overuse of custody Inappropriate programming Racialization Long tradition of scholarship examining whether groups are treated ‗same‘ under criminal justice system Definitional challenges Methodological challenges Difficulty identifying mechanisms But law and criminology don‘t merely inherit race, ethnicity, Aboriginal status, class, and gender—help define and shape those categories A Closer Look at Race & Masculinity (Rios 2009) Consequences of policing and CJ system on Black and Latino youth in the U.S. Ethnography Rios‘ biography Production of hyper-masculinity Police, incarceration & probation fuel ‗tough front‘ and a destructive hyper-masculinity System thus produces violence, rather than inhibiting it A Closer Look at Racialization (from the U.S. prison case) (Goodman 2008, 2010, 2012) Johnson v. California (2005) Segregated reception centres Legal argument Prisoners segregate themselves Last vestige of Jim Crow Sociological reality Negotiated settlement produces the categorization that undergirds segregation Power and shared responsibility Changing demography doesn‘t change racialization Fire camps February 28, 2013 Lecture 7 Biblio assignment - guidelines posted - topic due next week – should be interesting - topic within criminology, some discussed in class - then narrow to more specific topic - 6 journal articles on the topic – need to use something that is on the list - intro and analysis of all articles - Summary and analysis need to go together – analyzing while summering Policing RCMP in the News, Again CBC news:  Workplace harassment probed by MPs  Allegation abuse by police  Murdered and missing aboriginal women  Bullying in RCMP and sexual harassment because of the racial and gender change in culture, and change in composition  Head of RCMP was answering questions about issues facing the force in Canada  Evidence of issues in policing within aboriginal  Underpolicing, and not properly investigating, and deaths/ murder in aboriginal women etc  Within police force there is sexual harassment as well as police to citizens  Federal police force in Canada, professional force, very well funded, so sup?  Why there are so many problems? What is going on? Why do we care? o Part o this could be because of Federal supervision – complicated o Under federal law and capacities – under contract, sometimes this town has federal and other part only criminal code. What are they doing where o RCMP investigates itself so it is problematic  Depending who the officer is – education, training, experience, gender is a factor, ―good cop‖ defining, debate between generalization (gender) o Institutional problems, debate o Is it companies or agencies failure in taking responsibility Background into Policing in Canada - About 60,000 police officers across Canada  about one for every 529 Canadians. Compare to about one officer for every 400 people in U.S. Also lower ratio than Australia, Great Britain o Fewer police officers in Canada  Largest cost item in the JS o About 60% of total CJ funding o About $300 per Canadian per year – high number, spending a lot of money to them - what are we getting for it?  Structure of policing – Complicated system  Level of system of policing – forcing diff types of laws o Federal o Provincial o Municipal o First Nations  Also public transportation police, private security - Table: 3.1  what does it mean? o Most frequent lists – most common things  Calls on injured or sick, property damage, noise alarms, car accident – all of them are important  Deeply concerned about police force – that making sure they are using the force correctly not too aggressive  Routine – as a police officer – challenging, research, what we are really worried about  They become too paranoid – cultivation – working personality  Given this, how would you describe what everyday policing is like? Some Key issues - Double-Edge sword of visibility  G-20 vs. death of Sgt. Ryan Russell)  How do police take care of the protests  A police officer got killed by snow plow – Ryan - Public perception vs. reality  police officers as heroes  4 year olds say – police officer, firefighter  frustration, anger – police power abuse, - Police in a democratic society: public order and/or individual rights  griffin talks about it  policing is always a balance between satisfying the public desire for safety – police prevent crime and respond to crime when it happens  individuals citizens have their rights protected – what are the appropriate procedures?  Courts have been arguing about them  Making some evidence – moments where we value individual rights especially when someone is guilty of a crime and is not prosecuted  We rather have guilty man or women be free than be violated their rights  What insurance is there and mechanism is there to keep policing more general accountable  So we are always having these debates - Privatization  more private security of people in Canada than police officers  people and researchers are more interested more in a person that is being followed in a mall than a normal police officer  act within laws and regulations for their companies – their obligations o debates about that they less likely follow procedures than laws  least attention to process and rights – shoplifting o guards and officers – there are they because shoplifting has been a progressive crime  limited o private security – citizens armed with radios etc. raises questions on effectiveness o all they do is eyes and ears and pass it on, but once u put someone in a position to be told as a protector In a community so they actually do more then just eyes and ears - neighborhood watch o a person who calls the cop – creating the situation that is artificial – pretending something that is not – problem in privatization - ‗Working personality‘  3.1 box  police prevent crime – but basically never happens – but not 0%  police car driving by and sees a crime and catches it o community policing – drive around or walk around and patrol to prevent crime – if they see something happen they would stop it but it never happens – act as a deterrent  research on deterrent – there is evidence that crime does drop when they say they need more officers – not a self serving behavior  new research crime is a specific area – know what ur trying to prevent  displacement problems – response: more technologically savvy- get to the hot spots before it goes away - Is training a panacea?  Whenever there is a problem the answer is more training – debatable o Officers respond more o More training around the issue – solution to aboriginal unfairness  Solution always seems to be training and why that is why is it so appealing and when is it really that appealing – because it maintains the same institutiaonal organization  Individual offircers are acting badly so training needs to be worked on, so the office is not the problem but the officer wasn‘t trained enough  These problems are structural - gender and female officers  higher more females officers to solve few problems - First nations policing - ‗Gypsy‘ officers  unpacking  officers that are move from one police force to another – supply and demand issue – forces reqruit from other forces  on avg. these people have higher rates in misconduct – no explanation o but possibility is that ppl are leaving one police force than other because of aligations – reflecting on larger problems in sability of officers and their position In the force Community Policing  solution for misconduct – standard model of policing - What is it? Or, perhaps more precisely, what is it not?  Citizen involvement; community as a source of info; greater accountability; proactive, preventative; reflecting community wrt gender, culture; broad consultation  What is it not? Is this new? - Compare to welfare/bureaucratic/traditional policing - Does it ‗work‘?  how do they respond, are they quick, were people satisfied?  Officers in a car driving around responding to calls  It wasn‘t working – working poorly in the communitites that had the largest crime – because it was reactive  Hostile relationships with the police – their job was to go in th community and restore order in a higher article way – so it shows that we need to do things differently - Is there any real alternative today? - Amsterdam in The Wire - prevent and react time  when the crimes decrease that means we r doing good  and the decrease in crime is partially deal with police – unfair credit or blame - Community policing:  what is it? o Impossible to answer, griffin tries o Anything can fall undet that unbrealla  If we need policing we need good policing – community policing  Abstract argument  Many activities o Higher Above ^^^  Partnership between the police and community  Use community for information, respond to indv concerns, asking ppl their problems and they respond to them – they are new o 200 years old o only take us so far, so u respond to com
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