Prison is usually the central punishment for crimes: global trends- number of punishments increasing, length of time in prision. Justification for these punitiveness- raising crime rates, public disorder, more people causing trouble. Proportional, just deserts model. (most criminal justice systems. Jan, 9, 2012: 2. deterrence- assumes we do cost/benefit analysis- i like a person"s laptop, but i dont steal it because ill get caught. crime result of rational decision. (choice theory). Protection of society is key, not really about the rights of individuals. Assumes that the justice system is the answer to crime. two types of deterrence. Difference of sentencing policies only have an effect on the imprisonment rates, not on crime rates. canadian youth context- 2003 highest rate of incarcerating youth than the. 3. crime rates are going down. three distinct states of criminal responsibility: 1. children (under age 12)- no criminal responsibility. they dont get off, they still get some punishments, 2.