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Lecture

SOC211 LEC 9 .docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC211H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 9 Subculture and Deviance • Culture: values, norms, guide behavior and value judgment • Subculture: distinctive culture within a culture, its norms and values differ, may be  conductive to deviance • Elements of Subculture: the focus today is on how they are created and how they are  formed • 1) Focal concerns (FC): expressed by o Vocabularies of motives o Lingo/symbols/behavior • 2) Close and continuous contact o Subcultures are maintained through continuous interaction Origins of Subcultural Theory • Began with the Chicago school: 1920’s  • Transmission of Deviant Culture o They were concerned with how these cultural values are passes on from  generation to generation o Random distribution of deviance isn’t random—its usually located in certain parts  of the city o Interested in knowing how deviance is localized and the way in which it is  transmitted generation to generation • Clifford Shaw: cultural transmission theory o Disorganized areas= deviance is normal o Successful deviance: role models for young o Transmitted generationally= normal socialization • Edwin Sutherland: differential association o Interaction  ▯learning o Values, attitudes, techniques, motivate o Outweigh pro­social values • Interactional factors degree of learned values  o Frequency: how often o Duration: how long o Priority: early associations o Intensity: strength  Late Development of Subcultural Theory Post WWII: 1950­1960’s • 1) Social failure o MC values competitive individualism, mobility, SES o Mechanism: school o WC: lack of access’ o The broader culture (main stream culture) the main values are middle class  values, which promote competition, individualism and mobility.  • 2) Cultural deficit o Family: failure to transmit MC values o Frustrated mobility • 3) Marxists o Proletariat’s alienation o Capitalism and MC values  Status Frustration: School is the problem • WC: youth deviance: occurs in gangs • Non­utilitarian: not for money: for “buzz” • Poorly educated o Cannot compete with MC kids o Language of schools / lack of means at home • Immediate Results: o Frustration =>reaction formation  o = Formation of Deviant­subcultures  o Opposition / devaluation of middle­class culture  o Behavior, speech, goals … • Future Results: o Social failure  o Operates according to middle class values o E.g. street manners in conflict with academic or business manners  Working­Class Focal Concerns • WC antisocial subculture  ▯failure everywhere • “Focal Concerns” o Command widespread and persistent attention o High degree of emotion involvement • Fastest o Fate: life cant be change, make the best of it o Autonomy: don’t let them push you around o Trouble: life involve violence, don’t run away o Excitement: look for fun and enjoyment o Smartness: look good, act sharp o Toughness: manliness o =Drinking, womanizing, sporting ability  Delinquency and Drift • Delinquency: no deviant subculture needed • Delinquents o Similar to others in values o Display similar feelings of outrange about crime • We still hold two levels of values • 1) Conventional (most often): pre­social o Demands o
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